Vernacular Bilingualism in Professional Spaces, 1200 to 1400

Richard Ingham, Imogen Marcus

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


    This chapter investigates the extent of French/English bilingualism in medieval England, taking data from a range of non-literary textual sources. It argues that the routine use of French, in its insular variety, extended well beyond the topmost levels of the social pyramid. It was used in a range of professions, such as manorial estate management, medicine and architecture, well in to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationMultilingualism in the middle ages and early modern age; communication and miscommunication in the premodern world.
    EditorsAlbrecht Classen
    Publisherde Gruyter
    ISBN (Print)9783110470963
    Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2016


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