Vernacular Bilingualism in Professional Spaces, 1200 to 1400

Richard Ingham, Imogen Marcus

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


This chapter investigates the extent of French/English bilingualism in medieval England, taking data from a range of non-literary textual sources. It argues that the routine use of French, in its insular variety, extended well beyond the topmost levels of the social pyramid. It was used in a range of professions, such as manorial estate management, medicine and architecture, well in to the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMultilingualism in the middle ages and early modern age; communication and miscommunication in the premodern world.
EditorsAlbrecht Classen
Publisherde Gruyter
ISBN (Print)9783110470963
Publication statusPublished - 9 Jun 2016


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