Previous work has established how achievement emotions are related to the trichotomous model of achievement goals, and how they predict academic performance. In our study we examine relations using an additional, mastery-avoidance goal, and whether outcome-focused emotions are predicted by mastery as well as performance goals. Results showed that outcome-focused emotions were predicted by mastery approach/avoidance, and performance-avoidance goals, whereas activity-focused emotions were predicted by mastery approach/avoidance goals only. Two achievement emotions, pride and hope, mediated relations between achievement goals and academic performance. These findings show that it is important to consider the hierarchical nature of achievement goals, that is, the distinction between goals and reasons. If students use grades as a basis on which to judge their task and intrapersonal competence, then mastery goals can predict outcome-focused emotions.
Putwain, D. W., Sander, P., & Larkin, D. (2013). Using the 2 × 2 framework of achievement goals to predict achievement emotions and academic performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 25(1), 80-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2013.01.006