Using collocation analysis to reveal the construction of minority groups: The case of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the UK press

Paul Baker, Tony McEnery, Costas Gabrielatos

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

Abstract

Refugees, asylum seekers, and immigrants (henceforth RASIM) coming into the UK have attracted increased press attention (Greenslade, 2005). As their representation in the press can construct their identity (Duffy and Rowden, 2005: 6, in Greenslade, 2005: 7), the discourses surrounding these groups have been the focus of linguistic studies (e.g. ter Wal, 2002). This paper reports on the ESRC funded project, â Representation of refugees and asylum seekers in UK newspapers 1996-2005â. Although the project combines critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics approaches, the paper aims to exemplify the contribution of corpus research to discourse analysis (cf. Koller & Mautner, 2004; Orpin, 2005; Sotillo & Wang-Gempp, 2004). The study used a corpus of 140 million words, comprising 175,000 articles from 15 UK newspapers, spanning 1996-2005 (see Gabrielatos, 2007). Specifically, the paper reports on the collocational analysis, which adopted the methodology in Baker & McEnery (2005) and McEnery (2006). An added methodological notion, akin to key keywords (Scott, 2004: 115), is that of consistent collocates, i.e. words which are collocates in at least seven out of the ten annual sub-corpora. Collocates can contribute to âa semantic analysis of a wordâ (Sinclair, 1991: 115-116). Also, as â they can convey messages implicitly and even be at odds with an overt statementâ (Hunston, 2002: 109), they are a suitable vehicle for the discoursal presentation of a group (Baker, 2006). The analysis also makes use of the related notions of semantic prosody (Louw, 1993: 157), semantic preference (Stubbs, 2001: 65), and discourse prosody (ibid.: 65-66). The examination of collocation patterns has revealed systematic semantic associations, which map onto the CDA notions of topos (Reisigl & Wodak, 2001: 74â76) and topic (Sedlak, 2001: 129-130), as well as metaphors commonly employed in racist discourse (van der Valk (2000: 234). Arguably, these patterns reveal elements of the underlying discourses relating to RASIM.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jul 2007
Event4th Corpus Linguistics Conference - University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
Duration: 28 Jul 200730 Jul 2007

Conference

Conference4th Corpus Linguistics Conference
CountryUnited Kingdom
Period28/07/0730/07/07

Fingerprint

asylum seeker
refugee
immigrant
semantics
minority
discourse
discourse analysis
newspaper
Group
linguistics
metaphor
examination
methodology

Keywords

  • corpus linguistics
  • collocation
  • consistent collocates
  • semantic preference
  • semantic prosody
  • discourse prosody
  • discoursal construction
  • minority groups

Cite this

@conference{e413e573738647798d70830553694bb6,
title = "Using collocation analysis to reveal the construction of minority groups: The case of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the UK press",
abstract = "Refugees, asylum seekers, and immigrants (henceforth RASIM) coming into the UK have attracted increased press attention (Greenslade, 2005). As their representation in the press can construct their identity (Duffy and Rowden, 2005: 6, in Greenslade, 2005: 7), the discourses surrounding these groups have been the focus of linguistic studies (e.g. ter Wal, 2002). This paper reports on the ESRC funded project, {\^a} Representation of refugees and asylum seekers in UK newspapers 1996-2005{\^a}. Although the project combines critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics approaches, the paper aims to exemplify the contribution of corpus research to discourse analysis (cf. Koller & Mautner, 2004; Orpin, 2005; Sotillo & Wang-Gempp, 2004). The study used a corpus of 140 million words, comprising 175,000 articles from 15 UK newspapers, spanning 1996-2005 (see Gabrielatos, 2007). Specifically, the paper reports on the collocational analysis, which adopted the methodology in Baker & McEnery (2005) and McEnery (2006). An added methodological notion, akin to key keywords (Scott, 2004: 115), is that of consistent collocates, i.e. words which are collocates in at least seven out of the ten annual sub-corpora. Collocates can contribute to {\^a}a semantic analysis of a word{\^a} (Sinclair, 1991: 115-116). Also, as {\^a} they can convey messages implicitly and even be at odds with an overt statement{\^a} (Hunston, 2002: 109), they are a suitable vehicle for the discoursal presentation of a group (Baker, 2006). The analysis also makes use of the related notions of semantic prosody (Louw, 1993: 157), semantic preference (Stubbs, 2001: 65), and discourse prosody (ibid.: 65-66). The examination of collocation patterns has revealed systematic semantic associations, which map onto the CDA notions of topos (Reisigl & Wodak, 2001: 74{\^a}76) and topic (Sedlak, 2001: 129-130), as well as metaphors commonly employed in racist discourse (van der Valk (2000: 234). Arguably, these patterns reveal elements of the underlying discourses relating to RASIM.",
keywords = "corpus linguistics, collocation, consistent collocates, semantic preference, semantic prosody, discourse prosody, discoursal construction, minority groups",
author = "Paul Baker and Tony McEnery and Costas Gabrielatos",
year = "2007",
month = "7",
day = "30",
language = "English",
note = "4th Corpus Linguistics Conference ; Conference date: 28-07-2007 Through 30-07-2007",

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Baker, P, McEnery, T & Gabrielatos, C 2007, 'Using collocation analysis to reveal the construction of minority groups: The case of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the UK press' Paper presented at 4th Corpus Linguistics Conference, United Kingdom, 28/07/07 - 30/07/07, .

Using collocation analysis to reveal the construction of minority groups: The case of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the UK press. / Baker, Paul; McEnery, Tony; Gabrielatos, Costas.

2007. Paper presented at 4th Corpus Linguistics Conference, United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePaper

TY - CONF

T1 - Using collocation analysis to reveal the construction of minority groups: The case of refugees, asylum seekers and immigrants in the UK press

AU - Baker, Paul

AU - McEnery, Tony

AU - Gabrielatos, Costas

PY - 2007/7/30

Y1 - 2007/7/30

N2 - Refugees, asylum seekers, and immigrants (henceforth RASIM) coming into the UK have attracted increased press attention (Greenslade, 2005). As their representation in the press can construct their identity (Duffy and Rowden, 2005: 6, in Greenslade, 2005: 7), the discourses surrounding these groups have been the focus of linguistic studies (e.g. ter Wal, 2002). This paper reports on the ESRC funded project, â Representation of refugees and asylum seekers in UK newspapers 1996-2005â. Although the project combines critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics approaches, the paper aims to exemplify the contribution of corpus research to discourse analysis (cf. Koller & Mautner, 2004; Orpin, 2005; Sotillo & Wang-Gempp, 2004). The study used a corpus of 140 million words, comprising 175,000 articles from 15 UK newspapers, spanning 1996-2005 (see Gabrielatos, 2007). Specifically, the paper reports on the collocational analysis, which adopted the methodology in Baker & McEnery (2005) and McEnery (2006). An added methodological notion, akin to key keywords (Scott, 2004: 115), is that of consistent collocates, i.e. words which are collocates in at least seven out of the ten annual sub-corpora. Collocates can contribute to âa semantic analysis of a wordâ (Sinclair, 1991: 115-116). Also, as â they can convey messages implicitly and even be at odds with an overt statementâ (Hunston, 2002: 109), they are a suitable vehicle for the discoursal presentation of a group (Baker, 2006). The analysis also makes use of the related notions of semantic prosody (Louw, 1993: 157), semantic preference (Stubbs, 2001: 65), and discourse prosody (ibid.: 65-66). The examination of collocation patterns has revealed systematic semantic associations, which map onto the CDA notions of topos (Reisigl & Wodak, 2001: 74â76) and topic (Sedlak, 2001: 129-130), as well as metaphors commonly employed in racist discourse (van der Valk (2000: 234). Arguably, these patterns reveal elements of the underlying discourses relating to RASIM.

AB - Refugees, asylum seekers, and immigrants (henceforth RASIM) coming into the UK have attracted increased press attention (Greenslade, 2005). As their representation in the press can construct their identity (Duffy and Rowden, 2005: 6, in Greenslade, 2005: 7), the discourses surrounding these groups have been the focus of linguistic studies (e.g. ter Wal, 2002). This paper reports on the ESRC funded project, â Representation of refugees and asylum seekers in UK newspapers 1996-2005â. Although the project combines critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics approaches, the paper aims to exemplify the contribution of corpus research to discourse analysis (cf. Koller & Mautner, 2004; Orpin, 2005; Sotillo & Wang-Gempp, 2004). The study used a corpus of 140 million words, comprising 175,000 articles from 15 UK newspapers, spanning 1996-2005 (see Gabrielatos, 2007). Specifically, the paper reports on the collocational analysis, which adopted the methodology in Baker & McEnery (2005) and McEnery (2006). An added methodological notion, akin to key keywords (Scott, 2004: 115), is that of consistent collocates, i.e. words which are collocates in at least seven out of the ten annual sub-corpora. Collocates can contribute to âa semantic analysis of a wordâ (Sinclair, 1991: 115-116). Also, as â they can convey messages implicitly and even be at odds with an overt statementâ (Hunston, 2002: 109), they are a suitable vehicle for the discoursal presentation of a group (Baker, 2006). The analysis also makes use of the related notions of semantic prosody (Louw, 1993: 157), semantic preference (Stubbs, 2001: 65), and discourse prosody (ibid.: 65-66). The examination of collocation patterns has revealed systematic semantic associations, which map onto the CDA notions of topos (Reisigl & Wodak, 2001: 74â76) and topic (Sedlak, 2001: 129-130), as well as metaphors commonly employed in racist discourse (van der Valk (2000: 234). Arguably, these patterns reveal elements of the underlying discourses relating to RASIM.

KW - corpus linguistics

KW - collocation

KW - consistent collocates

KW - semantic preference

KW - semantic prosody

KW - discourse prosody

KW - discoursal construction

KW - minority groups

M3 - Paper

ER -