Underpinning Sustainable Vector Control through Informed Insecticide Resistance Management

Edward K. Thomsen, Clare Strode, Kay Hemmings, Angela J. Hughes, Emmanuel Chanda, Mulenga Musapa, Mulakwa Kamuliwo, Faustina N. Phiri, Lucy Muzia, Javan Chanda, Alister Kandyata, Brian Chirwa, Kathleen Poer, Janet Hemingway, Charles S. Wondji, Hilary Ranson, Michael Coleman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)
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Background: There has been rapid scale-up of malaria vector control in the last ten years. Both of the primary control strategies, long-lasting pyrethroid treated nets and indoor residual spraying, rely on the use of a limited number of insecticides. Insecticide resistance, as measured by bioassay, has rapidly increased in prevalence and has come to the forefront as an issue that needs to be addressed to maintain the sustainability of malaria control and the drive to elimination. Zambia’s programme reported high levels of resistance to the insecticides it used in 2010, and, as a result, increased its investment in resistance monitoring to support informed resistance management decisions. Methodology/Principal Findings: A country-wide survey on insecticide resistance in Zambian malaria vectors was performed using WHO bioassays to detect resistant phenotypes. Molecular techniques were used to detect target-site mutations and microarray to detect metabolic resistance mechanisms. Anopheles gambiae s.s. was resistant to pyrethroids, DDT and carbamates, with potential organophosphate resistance in one population. The resistant phenotypes were conferred by both target-site and metabolic mechanisms. Anopheles funestus s.s. was largely resistant to pyrethroids and carbamates, with potential resistance to DDT in two locations. The resistant phenotypes were conferred by elevated levels of cytochrome p450s. Conclusions/Significance: Currently, the Zambia National Malaria Control Centre is using these results to inform their vector control strategy. The methods employed here can serve as a template to all malaria-endemic countries striving to create a sustainable insecticide resistance management plan
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere99822
Pages (from-to)1-13
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number6
Early online date16 Jun 2014
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2014


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