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This paper presents a human verification scheme in two independent stages to overcome the vulnerabilities of attacks and to enhance security. At the first stage, a hand image-based CAPTCHA (HandCAPTCHA) is tested to avert automated bot-attacks on the subsequent biometric stage. In the next stage, finger biometric verification of a legitimate user is performed with presentation attack detection (PAD) using the real hand images of the person who has passed a random HandCAPTCHA challenge. The electronic screen-based PAD is tested using image quality metrics. After this spoofing detection, geometric features are extracted from the four fingers (excluding the thumb) of real users. A modified forward–backward (M-FoBa) algorithm is devised to select relevant features for biometric authentication. The experiments are performed on the Boğaziçi University (BU) and the IIT-Delhi (IITD) hand databases using the k-nearest neighbor and random forest classifiers. The average accuracy of the correct HandCAPTCHA solution is 98.5%, and the false accept rate of a bot is 1.23%. The PAD is tested on 255 subjects of BU, and the best average error is 0%. The finger biometric identification accuracy of 98% and an equal error rate (EER) of 6.5% have been achieved for 500 subjects of the BU. For 200 subjects of the IITD, 99.5% identification accuracy, and 5.18% EER are obtained.
Original languageEnglish
Article number114583
JournalExpert Systems with Applications
Early online date9 Jan 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 Jan 2021


  • Attack
  • Feature Selection
  • Finger Geometry
  • Image Quality
  • Spoofing
  • Verification


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