Trends in the smoking habits of young adults with diabetes

I MacFarlane, G Gill, T Grove, M Wallymahmed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: To examine changes in the prevalence of smoking in young adult diabetic patients between 1990 and 1999.

SETTING: Walton Diabetes Centre, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, UK.

DESIGN: Direct questioning as well as the urinary cotinine:creatinine ratio were used to assess the smoking habits of 99 young type 1 diabetic patients in 1991 (mean age 21.5 years, duration of diabetes 7.3 years), and in 112 similar patients in 1999 (mean age 23.4 years, duration of diabetes 9.6 years).

RESULTS: The admitted smoking rate was 31/99 (31%) in 1990 compared with 31/112 (28%) in 1999 (not significant). However, in 1990 there were an additional 17 "covert" smokers (patients who denied smoking, but had an unequivocally raised urinary cotinine:creatinine ratio), but only three in 1999 (p<0.05). This gave a corrected validated smoking rate of 48/99 (48%) in 1990 and 34/112 (30%) in 1999, representing a significant fall (p<0.02).

CONCLUSION: Smoking rates in young type 1 diabetic patients appear to have fallen during the last decade, and reporting of smoking behaviour is now more honest.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)461-3
Number of pages3
JournalPostgraduate Medical Journal
Issue number909
Early online date1 Jul 2001
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2001


  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age of Onset
  • Biomarkers/urine
  • Cotinine/urine
  • Creatinine/urine
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/psychology
  • England/epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking/epidemiology


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