Transplant renal vein thrombosis usually occurs early after surgery with a reported prevalence of 0.1% to 4.2%. It is a devastating event that ultimately leads to graft loss in almost all cases. There are many predisposing factors related to donor, recipient, surgery, and immunosuppression, with mechanical factors being considered the most common causes of transplant renal vein thrombosis. The clinical manifestations of acute renal vein thrombosis are nonspecific and are not dissimilar to the features of urine leak, urinary obstruction, or severe acute rejection. The diagnosis of transplant renal vein thrombosis depends on a high index of clinical suspicion and duplex ultrasonographic scans. Although venography remains the criterion standard, this procedure is invasive and nephrotoxic, due to use of ionizing contrast agents and also due to exposure to ionizing radiation. There are 2 therapies that have been described in the literature for salvaging a renal allograft with transplant renal vein thrombosis: thrombolytic therapy and surgical thrombectomy. The usual end result is renal allograft nephrectomy because the diagnosis is almost always too late.