The Simon effect refers to the advantage of responding to spatially compatible stimuli. This effect can be eliminated or even reversed to favor spatially incompatible stimuli after participants practice a choice-reaction task with spatially incompatible mappings (e.g., pressing left and right keys to stimuli on the right and left, respectively). This transfer of incompatible spatial associations has been observed under conditions in which responses were made manually (e.g., keypresses, moving a joystick). The present study used vocal responses to reveal the primary determinants of the transfer effect, dissociating the influences of stimulus type, response mode, and their interaction (set-level compatibility). The results suggest that contextual match between the practice and transfer tasks with respect to stimulus type and response mode determined transfer of incompatible associations to the Simon task, and stimulus type determined the efficiency of acquiring new associations. However, there was little evidence that set-level compatibility plays any major role in either acquisition or transfer of spatial associations.
Yamaguchi, M., Chen, J., & Proctor, R. W. (2015). Transfer of learning in choice reactions: The roles of stimulus type, response mode, and set-level compatibility. Memory & Cognition, 43(6), 825-836. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13421-015-0518-2