Four experiments investigated the origin of associative and categorical memory illusions by comparing the effects of study and test associations on Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) and categorized lists. Experiments 1 and 2 found that levels of false recognition with both list types were increased by manipulations that facilitated the generation of associates at study (blocked presentation of study lists and explicit instructions to generate associates of studied items). Experiments 3 and 4 showed that manipulations designed to increase test associations (test-induced priming and part-set cuing) did not increase levels of false memory with either list type. These findings indicate that false memories produced by both DRM and categorized lists are influenced by associations activated at study but not by associations activated at test.
Dewhurst, S., Bould, E., Knott, L., & Thorley, C. (2009). The roles of encoding and retrieval processes in associative and categorical memory illusions. Journal of Memory and Language, 60(1), 154-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2008.09.002