The prevalence of pre-conditioning and recovery strategies in senior elite and non-elite amateur boxing

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A variety of acute strategies around competition are used to prepare and promote physical and mental restoration in athletes. However, to date, no research exists on the prevalence of such methods in amateur boxing. Therefore, this study aimed to 1) examine the prevalence of pre-conditioning and recovery strategies in amateur boxing; 2) ascertain whether this was discriminated against at competitor level. This study surveyed 101 senior amateur boxers (Senior Elite SEB n = 59; Senior Development SDB n = 42), on their application and perceptions of pre-conditioning and recovery strategies. The reported findings determined a significantly greater number of SEB performed resistance priming activity up to 48 hours prior to competition (11, 19% vs 2, 5%; P = 0.040), and post-activation performance enhancement (PAPE) activity in the pre-competition warm-up (18, 31% vs 1, 2%; P < 0.001), compared to SDB. Likewise, SEB reported they were also significantly more likely to utilize massage (SEB 35, 59%, SDB 11, 29%, P = 0.001) and cold-water immersion (CWI) (SEB 28, 47%, SDB 10, 29%, P = 0.016) as recovery modes, compared to their SDB counterparts. This study was the first to provide data on the use of PAPE, priming and recovery methods around amateur boxing bouts. Increased access to multi-disciplinary staff could be expected in SEB, possibly explaining the greater prevalence of evidence-based methods around competition. Once athlete responsiveness to PAPEand longer-term priming methods are initially assessed, these strategies could be implemented to improve punch-specific performance, though more research is needed on their efficacy. Likewise, boxers could utilize evidence-based recovery modes where possible, with increased importance during repeat-bout scenarios, such as domestic tournaments. Coaches and practitioners may use this data to implement pre-conditioning and recovery strategies, to optimize performance and reduce the risk of injury of amateur boxers.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalPhysician and Sportsmedicine
Early online date27 May 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 May 2021


  • Post-activation performance enhancement
  • combat
  • fatigue
  • injury reduction
  • performance
  • recovery


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