The role of experience with other-race faces on the development of the ORE was investigated through a cross-cultural comparison between 5- to 6-year-old (n = 83) and 13- to 14-year-old (n = 66) children raised in a monoracial (British-White) and a multiracial (Malaysian-Chinese) population. British-White children showed an ORE to three other-race faces (Chinese, Malay, and African-Black) that was stable across age. Malaysian-Chinese children showed recognition deficit for less experienced faces (African-Black) but showed a recognition advantage for faces of which they have direct or indirect experience. Interestingly, younger (Malaysian-Chinese) children showed no ORE for female faces such that they can recognize all female faces regardless of race. These findings point to the importance of early race and gender experiences in re-organizing the face representation to accommodate changes in experience across development.
- other-race effect
- own-race bias
- face recognition
THAM, DIANA. SU. YUN., Bremner, J. G., & Hay, D. (2017). The other-race effect in children from a multiracial population: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 155, 128-137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.11.006