The influence of open space on ground-dwelling spider assemblages within plantation forests

Anne Oxbrough, Tom Gittings, John O'Halloran, Paul S Giller, Thomas C Kelly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sustainable forest management advocates the retention or creation of open space within plantation forests to enhance biodiversity. However, the biodiversity value of these open spaces will depend on the habitat type chosen, as well as open-space size and shape. The present study investigated ground-dwelling spider assemblages in glades, rides and forest roads of various sizes in 12 mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations across Ireland. Spiders were sampled along a transect from the open space into the forest using pitfall traps. Species richness and abundance declined along the open-forest transect with the open-space supporting a unique spider fauna, absent within the forest. Total species richness and richness of species associated with open habitats was significantly greater in the glades. There were few significant linear relationships between species variables and open-space width or area, however roads and rides <15 m wide did not support an open spider fauna due to the influence of the canopy. No such ‘threshold’ area was found for glades, probably because the glades investigated did not cover a low range of areas. Open-space habitat type is an important determinant of spider assemblage structure, although open spaces’ with high shrub cover or unplanted broadleaves did not differ in assemblage structure from those within the plantation. At a large scale the total amount of open space within 200 m of sampling plots was positively correlated with species richness and abundance. Forest management plans should encourage the retention of a range of habitat types in non-linear open space (glades), whereas the biodiversity value of linear open space (rides and roads) will be enhanced if wider than 15 m.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)404-417
JournalForest Ecology and Management
Volume237
Issue number1-3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006

Fingerprint

forest plantations
open space
spider
Araneae
plantation
habitat type
species diversity
Picea sitchensis
species richness
biodiversity
road
habitats
forest management
roads
dwelling
transect
plantations
fauna
forest roads
pitfall trap

Keywords

  • Spider assemblages
  • Open-space size
  • Plantation
  • Forest management
  • Ride
  • Forest road
  • Glade

Cite this

Oxbrough, Anne ; Gittings, Tom ; O'Halloran, John ; Giller, Paul S ; Kelly, Thomas C. / The influence of open space on ground-dwelling spider assemblages within plantation forests. In: Forest Ecology and Management. 2006 ; Vol. 237, No. 1-3. pp. 404-417.
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title = "The influence of open space on ground-dwelling spider assemblages within plantation forests",
abstract = "Sustainable forest management advocates the retention or creation of open space within plantation forests to enhance biodiversity. However, the biodiversity value of these open spaces will depend on the habitat type chosen, as well as open-space size and shape. The present study investigated ground-dwelling spider assemblages in glades, rides and forest roads of various sizes in 12 mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations across Ireland. Spiders were sampled along a transect from the open space into the forest using pitfall traps. Species richness and abundance declined along the open-forest transect with the open-space supporting a unique spider fauna, absent within the forest. Total species richness and richness of species associated with open habitats was significantly greater in the glades. There were few significant linear relationships between species variables and open-space width or area, however roads and rides <15 m wide did not support an open spider fauna due to the influence of the canopy. No such ‘threshold’ area was found for glades, probably because the glades investigated did not cover a low range of areas. Open-space habitat type is an important determinant of spider assemblage structure, although open spaces’ with high shrub cover or unplanted broadleaves did not differ in assemblage structure from those within the plantation. At a large scale the total amount of open space within 200 m of sampling plots was positively correlated with species richness and abundance. Forest management plans should encourage the retention of a range of habitat types in non-linear open space (glades), whereas the biodiversity value of linear open space (rides and roads) will be enhanced if wider than 15 m.",
keywords = "Spider assemblages, Open-space size, Plantation, Forest management, Ride, Forest road, Glade",
author = "Anne Oxbrough and Tom Gittings and John O'Halloran and Giller, {Paul S} and Kelly, {Thomas C}",
note = "Bedford, S., Usher, M., 1994. Distribution of arthropod species across the margins of farm woodlands. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 48, 295–305. Butterfield, J., Luff, M.L., Baines, M., Eyre, M.D., 1995. Carabid beetles communities as indicators conservation potential in upland forests. For. Ecol. Manage. 79, 63–77. Carter, C.I., 1989. Ride orientation and invertebrate activity. In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed.), Edge Management in Woodlands. Forestry Commission Occasional Paper No. 28, UK. Cawley, M., 1997. Distribution records for uncommon spiders (Araneae) including five species new to Ireland. Bull. Ir. Biogeog. Soc. 25, 135– 143. COFORD, 2000. Forecast of Roundwood Production from the Forests of Ireland 2001–2015. COFORF, Dublin. Coillte, 2005. http://www.coillte.ie/managing_our_forests.htm/. Coillte Teoranta. Day, K.R., Carthy, J., 1988. Changes in carabid beetle communities accompanying a rotation of sitka spruce. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 24, 407–415. Downie, I., Coulson, J., Butterfield, J., 1996. Distribution and dynamics of surface dwelling spiders across a pasture—plantation ecotone. Ecography 19, 29–40. Duffey, E., 1956. Aerial dispersal in a known spider population. J. Anim. Ecol. 25, 85–111. Ferris, R., Humphrey, J.W., 1999. A review of potential biodiversity indicators for application in British forests. Forestry 72, 313–328. Ferris, R., Peace, A.J., Humphrey, J.W., Broome, A.C., 2000. Relationships between vegetation, site type and stand structure in coniferous plantations in Britain. For. Ecol. Manage. 136, 35–51. Forest Service, 2000. Forest Biodiversity Guidelines. Department of Marine and Natural Resources, Dublin. Forest Service, 2003. Forestry Schemes Manual. Department of Marine and Natural Resources, Dublin. Forest Service, 2004. Forestry Statistics. Department of Agriculture and Food, Dublin. , In: http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/forestry/files/. Frazer, G., Canham, C., Lertzman, K., 1999. Gap Light Analyzer, Version 2.0. Simon Fraser University, New York. Greatorex-Davies, J., 1989. Woodland edge management for invertebrates. In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed.), Edge Management in Woodlands. Forestry Commission Occasional Paper No. 28, UK. Greatorex-Davies, J., Hall, M., Marrs, R., 1992. Preliminary studies on the creation and management of glades in conifer plantations for the conservation of the pearl-bordered fritillary Boloria euphrsyne. For. Ecol. Manage. 15, 1–15. Greatorex-Davies, J., Sparks, T., 1994. The response of heteoptera and coleoptera species to shade and aspect in rides of coniferised lowland woods in Southern England. Biol. Conserv. 67, 255–273. Greatorex-Davies, J., Sparks, T., Hall, M., Marrs, R., 1993. The influence of shade on butterflies in rides of coniferised lowland woods in southern England and implications for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 63, 31–41. Grimshaw, H.M., 1989. Analysis of soils. In: Grimshaw, H.M. (Ed.), Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 14–16. Harvey, P., Nellist, D., Telfer, M., 2002. Provisional Atlas of British spiders (Arachnida, Araneae), vols. 1 & 2. Biological Records Centre, Huntingdon. Huhta, V., 2002. Soil macroarthropod communities in planted birch stands in comparison with natural forests in central Finland. Appl. Soil Ecol. 20, 199– 209. Jukes, M.R., Peace, A.J., Ferris, R., 2001. Carabid beetle communities associated with coniferous plantations in Britain: the influence of site, ground vegetation and stand structure. For. Ecol. Manage. 148, 271–286. MacArthur, R.H., MacArthur, J.W., 1961. On bird species diversity. Ecology 42, 594–598. Marc, P., Canard, A., Ysnel, F., 1999. Spiders (araneae) useful for pest limitation and bioindication. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 74, 229–273. McCune, B., Mefford, M., 1997. PC-ORD for Windows, Version 3.17. MJM Software, Oregon. McFerran, D., 1997. Northern Ireland Species Inventory Spiders (Arachnida). Queens University Belfast, Belfast. Melbourne, B., 1999. Bias in the effect of habitat structure on pitfall traps: an experimental evaluation. Aust. J. Ecol. 24, 228–239. Mueller-Dombois, D., Ellenberg, H., 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. Wiley and Sons, New York. Mullen, K., Fahy, O., Gormally, M., 2003. Ground flora and associated athropod communities of forest road edges in Connemara, Ireland. Biodivers. Conserv. 12, 87–101. Niemela¨, J., Pajunen, T., Haila, Y., Punttila, P., Halme, E., 1994. Seasonal activity of boreal forest-floor spiders (Araneae). J. Arachnol. 22, 23–31. Nolan, M., 2002. Spiders (Araneae) of montane blanket bog in countyWicklow, Ireland. Bull. Ir. Biogeog. Soc. 26, 39–59. Oxbrough, A., Gittings, T., Giller, P.S., O’Halloran, J., 2005. Structural indicators of spider communities across the forest plantation cycle. For. Ecol. Manage. 212, 171–183. Pajunen, T., Haila, Y., Halme, E., Niemela, J., Punttila, P., 1995. Grounddwelling spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) in fragmented old forests and surrounding managed forests in Southern Finland. Ecography 18, 62–72. Peterken, G., Francis, J., 1999. Open spaces as habitats for vascular ground flora species in the woods of central Lincolnshire, UK. Biol. Conserv. 91, 55–72. Pianka, E.R., 1966. Altitudinal gradients in species diversity: a review of concepts. Am. Nat. 100, 33–46. Roberts, M., 1993. The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland, part 1. Harley Books, Colchester. Siira-Pietikainen, A., Haimi, J., Siitonen, J., 2003. Short-term responses of soil macroarthropod community to clear felling and alternative forest regeneration methods. For. Ecol. Manage. 172, 339–353. Siira-Pietikainen, A., Pietikainen, J., Fritze, H., Haimi, J., 2001. Short-term responses of soil decomposer communities to forest management: clear felling versus alternative forests harvesting methods. Can. J. For. Res. 31, 88–99. Sparks, T., Greatorex-Davies, J., Mountford, J., Hall, M., Marrs, R., 1996. The effects of shade on the plant communities of rides in plantation woodland and implications for butterfly conservation. For. Ecol. Manage. 80, 197– 207. Sparks, T., Greatorex-Davies, J.N., 1992. The effect of shade in plantation woodland on invertebrate abundance and biodiversity. Asp. Appl. Biol. 29, 89–96. SPSS, 2002. SPSS for Windows, Version 11.0. SPSS, Chicago. Teagasc: Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority 2005. http:// www.teagasc.ie/. Teagasc, Carlow. Terrel-Nield, C., 1986. Ecotones and community boundaries: analysis by pitfall trapping. Field Stud. 6, 407–428. Thomas, C.F.G., Hol, E.H.A., Everts, J.W., 1990. Modelling the diffusion component of dispersal during recovery of a population of Linyphiid spiders from exposure to an insecticide. Funct. Ecol. 4, 357–368. Uetz, G., 1991. Habitat structure and spider foraging. In: Bell, S., McCoy, E., Mushinsky, H. (Eds.), Habitat Structure. The Physical Arrangement of Objects in Space. Chapman and Hall, London. van Helsdingen, P.J., 1996. The spider fauna of some Irish floodplains. Ir. Nat. Jn. 25, 285–293. van Helsdingen, P.J., 1997. The spiders (Araneidae) of Pollardstown Fen. Co. Kildare, Ireland. Ir. Nat. Jn. 25, 396–404. Warren, M., 1989.Woodland edge management for butterflies. In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed.), Edge Management in Woodlands. Forestry Commission, UK. Warren, M., Fuller, R., 1993. Woodland Rides and Glades: Their Management for Wildlife. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, UK. Zar, J., 1996. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.",
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issn = "0378-1127",
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}

The influence of open space on ground-dwelling spider assemblages within plantation forests. / Oxbrough, Anne; Gittings, Tom; O'Halloran, John; Giller, Paul S; Kelly, Thomas C.

In: Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 237, No. 1-3, 2006, p. 404-417.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The influence of open space on ground-dwelling spider assemblages within plantation forests

AU - Oxbrough, Anne

AU - Gittings, Tom

AU - O'Halloran, John

AU - Giller, Paul S

AU - Kelly, Thomas C

N1 - Bedford, S., Usher, M., 1994. Distribution of arthropod species across the margins of farm woodlands. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 48, 295–305. Butterfield, J., Luff, M.L., Baines, M., Eyre, M.D., 1995. Carabid beetles communities as indicators conservation potential in upland forests. For. Ecol. Manage. 79, 63–77. Carter, C.I., 1989. Ride orientation and invertebrate activity. In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed.), Edge Management in Woodlands. Forestry Commission Occasional Paper No. 28, UK. Cawley, M., 1997. Distribution records for uncommon spiders (Araneae) including five species new to Ireland. Bull. Ir. Biogeog. Soc. 25, 135– 143. COFORD, 2000. Forecast of Roundwood Production from the Forests of Ireland 2001–2015. COFORF, Dublin. Coillte, 2005. http://www.coillte.ie/managing_our_forests.htm/. Coillte Teoranta. Day, K.R., Carthy, J., 1988. Changes in carabid beetle communities accompanying a rotation of sitka spruce. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 24, 407–415. Downie, I., Coulson, J., Butterfield, J., 1996. Distribution and dynamics of surface dwelling spiders across a pasture—plantation ecotone. Ecography 19, 29–40. Duffey, E., 1956. Aerial dispersal in a known spider population. J. Anim. Ecol. 25, 85–111. Ferris, R., Humphrey, J.W., 1999. A review of potential biodiversity indicators for application in British forests. Forestry 72, 313–328. Ferris, R., Peace, A.J., Humphrey, J.W., Broome, A.C., 2000. Relationships between vegetation, site type and stand structure in coniferous plantations in Britain. For. Ecol. Manage. 136, 35–51. Forest Service, 2000. Forest Biodiversity Guidelines. Department of Marine and Natural Resources, Dublin. Forest Service, 2003. Forestry Schemes Manual. Department of Marine and Natural Resources, Dublin. Forest Service, 2004. Forestry Statistics. Department of Agriculture and Food, Dublin. , In: http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/forestry/files/. Frazer, G., Canham, C., Lertzman, K., 1999. Gap Light Analyzer, Version 2.0. Simon Fraser University, New York. Greatorex-Davies, J., 1989. Woodland edge management for invertebrates. In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed.), Edge Management in Woodlands. Forestry Commission Occasional Paper No. 28, UK. Greatorex-Davies, J., Hall, M., Marrs, R., 1992. Preliminary studies on the creation and management of glades in conifer plantations for the conservation of the pearl-bordered fritillary Boloria euphrsyne. For. Ecol. Manage. 15, 1–15. Greatorex-Davies, J., Sparks, T., 1994. The response of heteoptera and coleoptera species to shade and aspect in rides of coniferised lowland woods in Southern England. Biol. Conserv. 67, 255–273. Greatorex-Davies, J., Sparks, T., Hall, M., Marrs, R., 1993. The influence of shade on butterflies in rides of coniferised lowland woods in southern England and implications for conservation management. Biol. Conserv. 63, 31–41. Grimshaw, H.M., 1989. Analysis of soils. In: Grimshaw, H.M. (Ed.), Chemical Analysis of Ecological Materials. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 14–16. Harvey, P., Nellist, D., Telfer, M., 2002. Provisional Atlas of British spiders (Arachnida, Araneae), vols. 1 & 2. Biological Records Centre, Huntingdon. Huhta, V., 2002. Soil macroarthropod communities in planted birch stands in comparison with natural forests in central Finland. Appl. Soil Ecol. 20, 199– 209. Jukes, M.R., Peace, A.J., Ferris, R., 2001. Carabid beetle communities associated with coniferous plantations in Britain: the influence of site, ground vegetation and stand structure. For. Ecol. Manage. 148, 271–286. MacArthur, R.H., MacArthur, J.W., 1961. On bird species diversity. Ecology 42, 594–598. Marc, P., Canard, A., Ysnel, F., 1999. Spiders (araneae) useful for pest limitation and bioindication. Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 74, 229–273. McCune, B., Mefford, M., 1997. PC-ORD for Windows, Version 3.17. MJM Software, Oregon. McFerran, D., 1997. Northern Ireland Species Inventory Spiders (Arachnida). Queens University Belfast, Belfast. Melbourne, B., 1999. Bias in the effect of habitat structure on pitfall traps: an experimental evaluation. Aust. J. Ecol. 24, 228–239. Mueller-Dombois, D., Ellenberg, H., 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. Wiley and Sons, New York. Mullen, K., Fahy, O., Gormally, M., 2003. Ground flora and associated athropod communities of forest road edges in Connemara, Ireland. Biodivers. Conserv. 12, 87–101. Niemela¨, J., Pajunen, T., Haila, Y., Punttila, P., Halme, E., 1994. Seasonal activity of boreal forest-floor spiders (Araneae). J. Arachnol. 22, 23–31. Nolan, M., 2002. Spiders (Araneae) of montane blanket bog in countyWicklow, Ireland. Bull. Ir. Biogeog. Soc. 26, 39–59. Oxbrough, A., Gittings, T., Giller, P.S., O’Halloran, J., 2005. Structural indicators of spider communities across the forest plantation cycle. For. Ecol. Manage. 212, 171–183. Pajunen, T., Haila, Y., Halme, E., Niemela, J., Punttila, P., 1995. Grounddwelling spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) in fragmented old forests and surrounding managed forests in Southern Finland. Ecography 18, 62–72. Peterken, G., Francis, J., 1999. Open spaces as habitats for vascular ground flora species in the woods of central Lincolnshire, UK. Biol. Conserv. 91, 55–72. Pianka, E.R., 1966. Altitudinal gradients in species diversity: a review of concepts. Am. Nat. 100, 33–46. Roberts, M., 1993. The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland, part 1. Harley Books, Colchester. Siira-Pietikainen, A., Haimi, J., Siitonen, J., 2003. Short-term responses of soil macroarthropod community to clear felling and alternative forest regeneration methods. For. Ecol. Manage. 172, 339–353. Siira-Pietikainen, A., Pietikainen, J., Fritze, H., Haimi, J., 2001. Short-term responses of soil decomposer communities to forest management: clear felling versus alternative forests harvesting methods. Can. J. For. Res. 31, 88–99. Sparks, T., Greatorex-Davies, J., Mountford, J., Hall, M., Marrs, R., 1996. The effects of shade on the plant communities of rides in plantation woodland and implications for butterfly conservation. For. Ecol. Manage. 80, 197– 207. Sparks, T., Greatorex-Davies, J.N., 1992. The effect of shade in plantation woodland on invertebrate abundance and biodiversity. Asp. Appl. Biol. 29, 89–96. SPSS, 2002. SPSS for Windows, Version 11.0. SPSS, Chicago. Teagasc: Irish Agriculture and Food Development Authority 2005. http:// www.teagasc.ie/. Teagasc, Carlow. Terrel-Nield, C., 1986. Ecotones and community boundaries: analysis by pitfall trapping. Field Stud. 6, 407–428. Thomas, C.F.G., Hol, E.H.A., Everts, J.W., 1990. Modelling the diffusion component of dispersal during recovery of a population of Linyphiid spiders from exposure to an insecticide. Funct. Ecol. 4, 357–368. Uetz, G., 1991. Habitat structure and spider foraging. In: Bell, S., McCoy, E., Mushinsky, H. (Eds.), Habitat Structure. The Physical Arrangement of Objects in Space. Chapman and Hall, London. van Helsdingen, P.J., 1996. The spider fauna of some Irish floodplains. Ir. Nat. Jn. 25, 285–293. van Helsdingen, P.J., 1997. The spiders (Araneidae) of Pollardstown Fen. Co. Kildare, Ireland. Ir. Nat. Jn. 25, 396–404. Warren, M., 1989.Woodland edge management for butterflies. In: Ferris-Kaan, R. (Ed.), Edge Management in Woodlands. Forestry Commission, UK. Warren, M., Fuller, R., 1993. Woodland Rides and Glades: Their Management for Wildlife. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, UK. Zar, J., 1996. Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.

PY - 2006

Y1 - 2006

N2 - Sustainable forest management advocates the retention or creation of open space within plantation forests to enhance biodiversity. However, the biodiversity value of these open spaces will depend on the habitat type chosen, as well as open-space size and shape. The present study investigated ground-dwelling spider assemblages in glades, rides and forest roads of various sizes in 12 mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations across Ireland. Spiders were sampled along a transect from the open space into the forest using pitfall traps. Species richness and abundance declined along the open-forest transect with the open-space supporting a unique spider fauna, absent within the forest. Total species richness and richness of species associated with open habitats was significantly greater in the glades. There were few significant linear relationships between species variables and open-space width or area, however roads and rides <15 m wide did not support an open spider fauna due to the influence of the canopy. No such ‘threshold’ area was found for glades, probably because the glades investigated did not cover a low range of areas. Open-space habitat type is an important determinant of spider assemblage structure, although open spaces’ with high shrub cover or unplanted broadleaves did not differ in assemblage structure from those within the plantation. At a large scale the total amount of open space within 200 m of sampling plots was positively correlated with species richness and abundance. Forest management plans should encourage the retention of a range of habitat types in non-linear open space (glades), whereas the biodiversity value of linear open space (rides and roads) will be enhanced if wider than 15 m.

AB - Sustainable forest management advocates the retention or creation of open space within plantation forests to enhance biodiversity. However, the biodiversity value of these open spaces will depend on the habitat type chosen, as well as open-space size and shape. The present study investigated ground-dwelling spider assemblages in glades, rides and forest roads of various sizes in 12 mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations across Ireland. Spiders were sampled along a transect from the open space into the forest using pitfall traps. Species richness and abundance declined along the open-forest transect with the open-space supporting a unique spider fauna, absent within the forest. Total species richness and richness of species associated with open habitats was significantly greater in the glades. There were few significant linear relationships between species variables and open-space width or area, however roads and rides <15 m wide did not support an open spider fauna due to the influence of the canopy. No such ‘threshold’ area was found for glades, probably because the glades investigated did not cover a low range of areas. Open-space habitat type is an important determinant of spider assemblage structure, although open spaces’ with high shrub cover or unplanted broadleaves did not differ in assemblage structure from those within the plantation. At a large scale the total amount of open space within 200 m of sampling plots was positively correlated with species richness and abundance. Forest management plans should encourage the retention of a range of habitat types in non-linear open space (glades), whereas the biodiversity value of linear open space (rides and roads) will be enhanced if wider than 15 m.

KW - Spider assemblages

KW - Open-space size

KW - Plantation

KW - Forest management

KW - Ride

KW - Forest road

KW - Glade

U2 - 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.09.063

DO - 10.1016/j.foreco.2006.09.063

M3 - Article

VL - 237

SP - 404

EP - 417

JO - Forest Ecology and Management

JF - Forest Ecology and Management

SN - 0378-1127

IS - 1-3

ER -