The Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA responses to hot downhill running are reduced following a prior bout of hot downhill running, and occur concurrently within leukocytes and the vastus lateralis

James Tuttle, Bryna Catherine Rose Christmas, Oliver R Gibson, James H Barrington, David C Hughes, Paul C Castle, Alan Metcalfe, Adrian Midgley, Oliver Pearce, Kabir Chindu, Faizal Rayanmarakar, Sami Al-Ali, Mark P Lewis, Lee Taylor

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Abstract

The leukocyte heat shock response (HSR) is used to determine individual’s thermotolerance. The HSR and thermotolerance are enhanced following interventions such as preconditioning and/or acclimation/acclimatisation. However, it is unclear whether the leukocyte HSR is an appropriate surrogate for the HSR in other tissues implicated within the pathophysiology of exertional heat illnesses (eg skeletal muscle), and whether an acute preconditioning strateg (eg downhill running) can improve subsequent thermotolerance. Physically active, non-heat acclimated participants were split into two groups to investigate the benefits of hot downhill running as preconditioning strategy. A hot preconditioning group (HPG; n = 6) completed two trials (HPGHOTDOWN1 and HPGHOTDOWN2) of 30 min running at lactate threshold (LT) on -10 % gradient in 30°C and 50 % relative humidity (RH) separated by 7 d. A temperate preconditioning group (TPG; n = 5) completed 30 min running at LT on a -1 % gradient in 20°C and 50 % (TPGTEMPFLAT) and 7 d later completed 30 min running at LT on -10 % gradient in 30°C and 50 % RH (TPGHOTDOWN). Venous blood samples and muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis; VL) were obtained before, immediately after, 3, 24 and 48 hr after each trial. Leukocyte and VL Hsp72, Hsp90α and Grp78 mRNA relative expression was determined via RT‐QPCR. Attenuated leukocyte and VL Hsp72 (2.8 to 1.8 fold and 5.9 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05) and Hsp90α mRNA (2.9 to 2.4 fold and 5.2 to 2.4 fold; p < 0.05) responses accompanied reductions (p < 0.05) in 3 / 7 physiological strain [exercising rectal temperature (-0.3°C) and perceived muscle soreness (~‐14%)] during HPGHOTDOWN2 compared to HPGHOTDOWN1 (i.e. a preconditioning effect). Both VL and leukocyte Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA increased (p < 0.05) simultaneously following downhill runs and demonstrated a strong relationship (p < 0.01) of similar magnitudes with one another. Hot downhill running is an effective preconditioning strategy which ameliorates physiological strain, soreness and Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA responses to a subsequent bout. Leukocyte and VL analyses are appropriate tissues to infer the extent to which the HSR has been augmented.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-15
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Volume8
Issue number473
Early online date12 Jul 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 12 Jul 2017

Keywords

  • Downhill running
  • heat shock response
  • heat stress
  • heat tolerance
  • preconditioning
  • cross tolerance
  • thermotolerance

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    Tuttle, J., Christmas, B. C. R., Gibson, O. R., Barrington, J. H., Hughes, D. C., Castle, P. C., Metcalfe, A., Midgley, A., Pearce, O., Chindu, K., Rayanmarakar, F., Al-Ali, S., Lewis, M. P., & Taylor, L. (2017). The Hsp72 and Hsp90α mRNA responses to hot downhill running are reduced following a prior bout of hot downhill running, and occur concurrently within leukocytes and the vastus lateralis. Frontiers in Physiology, 8(473), 1-15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2017.00473