The Gait Abnormality Index: A Summary Metric for Three-Dimensional Gait Analysis

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Background: This paper proposes an easy to calculate and adaptable summary gait metric, the Gait Abnormality Index (GAI), which is capable of simultaneously including kinematic and kinetic data, overcoming a key limitation of existing metrics. Research Question: To determine the validity, reliability and sensitivity of the GAI. Methods: The GAI is calculated by averaging Gait Abnormality Scores, which are normalised distance metrics used to describe the deviation of pathological gait data from that of healthy controls. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation analysis to explore relationships between the GAI and the Gait Profile Score. Test-retest reliability of the GAI was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of the measurement (SEM), and data from total hip arthroplasty patients. An independent samples t-test was used to compare GAI scores between knee osteoarthritis and total hip arthroplasty patients to explore the metrics sensitivity. Results: A strong positive correlation (r ≥ .896; p < .001) was reported between the GAI and the Gait Profile Score. Good test-retest reliability (ICC = .830) was reported for the GAI. Knee osteoarthritis patients displayed significantly (p = .017; Hedge’s g effect size = 0.98) greater GAI scores compared to total hip arthroplasty patients, with the mean difference (0.34 a.u) above the SEM (0.15 a.u). Significance: The GAI offers an easy to calculate summary metric for three-dimensional gait analysis, which displays good validity and reliability, and is sensitive to different pathological conditions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)87-91
JournalGait & Posture
Early online date24 Jul 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 24 Jul 2023


  • Gait Analysis
  • Motion Analysis
  • Pathology
  • Outcome


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