This study investigated the effects of orthographic depth on reading acquisition in alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts. Children between 6 and 15 years old read aloud in transparent syllabic Japanese hiragana, alphabets of increasing orthographic depth (Albanian, Greek, English), and orthographically opaque Japanese kanji ideograms, with items being matched cross-linguistically for word frequency. This study analyzed response accuracy, latency, and error types. Accuracy correlated with depth: Hiragana was read more accurately than, in turn, Albanian, Greek, English, and kanji. The deeper the orthography, the less latency was a function of word length, the greater the proportion of errors that were no-responses, and the more the substantive errors tended to be whole-word substitutions rather than nonword mispronunciations. Orthographic depth thus affected both rate and strategy of reading.
Ellis, N., Natsume, M., Stavropoulou, K., Hoxhallari, L., Van Daal, V., Polyzoe, N., Tsipa, M-L., & Petalas, M. (2004). The effects of orthographic the depth of learning to read alphabetic, syllabic, and logographic scripts. Reading Research Quarterly, 39(4), 438-468. https://doi.org/10.1598/RRQ.39.4.5