The association of appendicular lean mass and grip strength with low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein particle diameter: a Mendelian randomization study of the UK Biobank cohort

Richard Kirwan, Mohsen Mazidi, Tom Butler, Fatima Perez de Heredia, Gregory Y H Lip, Ian G Davies

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Abstract

Reduced muscle mass and reduced strength are frequently associated with both alterations in blood lipids and poorer cardiometabolic outcomes in epidemiological studies; however, a causal association cannot be determined from such observations. Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was applied to assess the association of genetically determined appendicular lean mass (ALM) and handgrip strength (HGS) with serum lipid particle diameter.

Methods and results
Mendelian randomization was implemented using summary-level data from the largest genome-wide association studies on ALM (n = 450 243), HGS (n = 223 315), and lipoprotein [low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)] particle diameters (n = 115 078). Inverse variance-weighted (IVW) method was used to calculate the causal estimates. Weighted median-based method, MR-Egger, and leave-one-out method were applied as sensitivity analysis. Greater ALM had a statistically significant positive effect on HDL particle diameter (MR-Egger: β = 0.055, SE = 0.031, P = 0.081; IVW: β = 0.068, SE = 0.014, P < 0.001) and a statistically significant negative effect on VLDL particle diameter (MR-Egger: β = −0.114, SE = 0.039, P = 0.003; IVW: β = −0.081, SE = 0.017, P < 0.001). Similarly, greater HGS had a statistically significant positive effect on HDL particle diameter (MR-Egger: β = 0.433, SE = 0.184, P = 0.019; IVW: β = 0.121, SE = 0.052, P = 0.021) and a statistically significant negative effect on VLDL particle diameter (MR-Egger: β = −0.416, SE = 0.163, P = 0.011; IVW: β = −0.122, SE = 0.046, P = 0.009). There was no statistically significant effect of either ALM or HGS on LDL particle diameter.

Conclusion
There were potentially causal associations between both increasing ALM and HGS and increasing HDL particle size and decreasing VLDL particle size. These causal associations may offer possibilities for interventions aimed at improving cardiovascular disease risk profile.
Original languageEnglish
Article numberoeae019
Pages (from-to)1-10
JournalEuropean Heart Journal Open
Volume4
Issue number2
Early online date14 Mar 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 9 Apr 2024

Keywords

  • Muscle mass
  • Mendelian randomization
  • Low-density lipoprotein
  • Sarcopenia
  • Lean mass
  • Lipoprotein diameter
  • High-density lipoprotein

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