The application of magnetic measurements for the characterisation of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment

Susan Jones, Nigel Richardson, Michael Bennett, Stephen R Hoon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)
5 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry. The main aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tyre wear residues, have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. All samples have been analysed by utilising a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tyres) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)385-390
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume502
Early online date29 Sep 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2015

Fingerprint

Particulate Matter
Magnetic variables measurement
airport
Airports
particulate matter
Aircraft
Brakes
Tires
Dust
aircraft
Minerals
magnetic mineral
tire
Engines
Aircraft engines
Mineralogy
engine
Takeoff
Landing
mineral property

Keywords

  • Aircraft emissions Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) Environmental magnetism Environmental pollution Magnetic ‘fingerprints’ Source attribution

Cite this

@article{68621551ef99451a985860215492fae0,
title = "The application of magnetic measurements for the characterisation of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment",
abstract = "The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry. The main aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tyre wear residues, have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. All samples have been analysed by utilising a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tyres) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.",
keywords = "Aircraft emissions Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) Environmental magnetism Environmental pollution Magnetic ‘fingerprints’ Source attribution",
author = "Susan Jones and Nigel Richardson and Michael Bennett and Hoon, {Stephen R}",
note = "Amato, F., Moreno, T., Pandolfi, M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Delgado. A., Pedrero, M., Cots, N., 2010. Concentrations, sources and geochemistry of airborne particulate matter at a major European airport. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 12, 854-862. Bennett, M., Christie, S., Graham, A., Thomas, B., Vishnyakov, V., Morris, K., Peters, D., Jones, R., Ansell, C., 2011. Composition of smoke generated by landing aircraft. Environ. Sci.Technol. 45, 3533–3538. Blau, P.J., 2001. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives; Report ORNL/TM-2001/64; Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bucko, M., Magiera, T., Pesonen, L., Janus, B., 2010. Magnetic, geochemical and microstructural characteristics of road dust on roadsides with different traffic volumes – Case study from Finland. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 209, 295–306. CAA, 2013, ‘Passenger numbers at UK airports up 1.4 million, but still below 2007 peak’ http://www.caa.co.uk/application.aspx?appid=7&mode=detail&nid=2217 (accessed 25/07/13). Crosby, C.J., Fullen, M.A., Booth, C.A., Searle, D.E., 2014. A dynamic approach to urban road deposited sediment pollution monitoring (Marylebone Road, London, UK). Journal of Applied Geophysics, 105, 10–20. Curran, R.J., 2006. Method for estimating particulate emissions from aircraft brakes and tyres. QinetiQ/05/01827. Herndon, S.C., Onasch, T.B., Frank, B.P., Marr, L.C., Jayne, J.T., Canagaratna, M.R., Grygas, J., Lanni, T., Anderson, B.E., Worsnop, D., Miake-Lye, R.C., 2005. Particulate emissions from in-use commercial aircraft. Aerosol Science and Technology, 39, 799-809. Hunt, A., J. Jones, F. Oldfield., 1984. Magnetic measurements and heavy metals in atmospheric particulates of anthropogenic origin, The Science of the Total Environment, 33, 129-139. Hunt, A., 1986. The application of mineral magnetic methods to atmospheric aerosol discrimination. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 42, 10-21. Hutton, T.J., McEnaney, B., Crelling, J.C., 1999. Structural studies of wear debris from carbon-carbon composite aircraft brakes. Carbon 37, 907-1916. Jones, M., 2008 Engine Fuel Filter Contamination. Boeing Commercial Aero Magazine QTR_03. (http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/articles/qtr_3_08/pdfs/AERO_Q308_article3.pdf) (accessed 8/6/13). Kim, W., Doh, S.J., Park, Y.H., Yun, S.T., 2007. Two-year magnetic monitoring in conjunction with geochemical and electron microscope data of roadside dust in Seoul, Korea. Atmos. Environ., 41, 7627-7641. Lobo, P., Whitefield, P.D., Hagen, D.E., 2013. ACRP Report 97: Measuring PM Emissions from Aircraft Auxiliary Power Units, Tires, and Brakes, Transportation Research Board. Mahashabde, A., Wolfe, P., Ashol, A., Dorbian, C., He, Q., Fan, A., Lukachko, S., Mozdzanowska, A., Wollersheim., Barrett, S.R.H., Locke, M., Waitz, I.A., 2011. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 47, 15-52. Maher, B., Moore, C., Matzka, J., 2008. Spatial variation in vehicle-derived metal pollution, identified by magnetic and elemental analysis of roadside tree leaves. Atmos. Environ., 42, 364–373. Matzka, J., Maher, B., 1999. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside tree leaves: identification of spatial and temporal variations in vehicle-derived particulates. Atmos. Environ., 33, 4565–4569. Oldfield, F., Hunt, A., Jones, M.D.H., Chester, R., Dearing, J.A., Olson, L., Prospero, J.M., 1985. Magnetic differentiation of atmospheric dusts. Nature, 317, 516-518. Penner, J.E., Lister, D.H., Griggs, D.J., Dokken, D.J., McFarland, M. (Eds.), 1999. Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. Cambridge University Press. Petrovsky, E., Ellwood, B.B., 1999, Magnetic monitoring of air-, land- and water-pollution. In: Maher, B.A., Thompson, R. (Eds.), Quaternary Climates, Environments and Magnetism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 279 – 322. Petzold, A., Fiebig, M., Fritzsche, L., Stein, C., Schumann, U., Wilson, C.W., Hurley, C.D., Arnold, F., Katragkou, E., Baltensperger, U., Gysel, M., Nyeki, S., Hitzenberger, R., Giebl, H., Hughes, K.J., Wiesen, P., Madden, P., Puxbaum, H., Vrchoticky, S., Wahl, C., 2005. Particle emissions from aircraft engines – a survey of the European Project PartEmis. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 44, 465-476. Press-Kristensen, K., 2012. ‘Air Pollution in Airports: Ultrafine particles, solutions and successful cooperation’ The Danish Ecocouncil. Richardson, N., 1986. The mineral magnetic record in recent ombrotrophic peat synchronised by fine resolution pollen analysis. Phys.Earth Planet Int., 42, 48 - 56. Rietsch, J.C., Dentzer, J., Dufour, A., Schnell, F., Vidal, L., Jacquemard, P., Gadiou, R., Vix-Guterl, C., 2009. Characterizations of carbon composites and wear debris after heavy braking demands. Carbon, 47 (1), 85–93. Robertson, D.J., Taylor, K.G., Hoon, S.R., 2003. Geochemical and mineral magnetic characterisation of urban sediment. Applied Geochemistry, 18, 269-282. Saragnese, F., Lance, L., Lanza, R., 2011. Nanometric-sized atmospheric particulate studied by magnetic analyses. Atmos. Environ., 45, 450-459. Spassov, S., Egli, R., Heller, F., Nourgaliev, D., Hannam, J., 2004. Magnetic quantification of urban pollution sources in atmospheric particulate matter. Geophysical Journal International, 159, 555-564. Starik, A.M., 2008. Gaseous and particulate emissions with jet engine exhaust and atmospheric pollution. Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft, 15, 1–22. Stettler, M.E.J., Eastham, S., Barrett, S.R.H., 2011. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part I: Emissions, Atmos. Environ., 45, 5415-5424. Thompson, R., Oldfield, F., 1986. Environmental Magnetism. Allen & Unwin, London. Walden, J., Oldfield, F., Smith, J.P., 1999. Environmental Magnetism: A Practical Guide. Quaternary Research Association, London. Wang, G., Oldfield, F., Xia, D., Chen, G., Liu, X., Zhang, W., 2012. Magnetic properties and correlation with heavy metals in urban street dust: A case study from the city of Lanzhou, China. Atmos. Environ., 46, 289-298. Webb, S., Whitefield, P.D., Miake-Lye, R.C., Timko, M.T., Thrasher, T.G., 2008. ACRP Report 6: Research needs associated with particulate emissions at airports, Transportation Research Board. Wood, E., Herndon, S., Miake-Lye, R., Nelson, D., Seeley, M., 2008. ACRP Report 7: Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis, Transportation Research Board. Zhu, Y., Fanning, E., Chun Yu, R., Zhang, Q., Froines, J,R., 2011. Aircraft emissions and local air quality impacts from takeoff activities at a large International Airport. Atmos. Environ., 45, 6526-6533.",
year = "2015",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.010",
language = "English",
volume = "502",
pages = "385--390",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

The application of magnetic measurements for the characterisation of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment. / Jones, Susan; Richardson, Nigel; Bennett, Michael; Hoon, Stephen R.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 502, 01.01.2015, p. 385-390.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The application of magnetic measurements for the characterisation of atmospheric particulate pollution within the airport environment

AU - Jones, Susan

AU - Richardson, Nigel

AU - Bennett, Michael

AU - Hoon, Stephen R

N1 - Amato, F., Moreno, T., Pandolfi, M., Querol, X., Alastuey, A., Delgado. A., Pedrero, M., Cots, N., 2010. Concentrations, sources and geochemistry of airborne particulate matter at a major European airport. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 12, 854-862. Bennett, M., Christie, S., Graham, A., Thomas, B., Vishnyakov, V., Morris, K., Peters, D., Jones, R., Ansell, C., 2011. Composition of smoke generated by landing aircraft. Environ. Sci.Technol. 45, 3533–3538. Blau, P.J., 2001. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives; Report ORNL/TM-2001/64; Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Bucko, M., Magiera, T., Pesonen, L., Janus, B., 2010. Magnetic, geochemical and microstructural characteristics of road dust on roadsides with different traffic volumes – Case study from Finland. Water, Air and Soil Pollution, 209, 295–306. CAA, 2013, ‘Passenger numbers at UK airports up 1.4 million, but still below 2007 peak’ http://www.caa.co.uk/application.aspx?appid=7&mode=detail&nid=2217 (accessed 25/07/13). Crosby, C.J., Fullen, M.A., Booth, C.A., Searle, D.E., 2014. A dynamic approach to urban road deposited sediment pollution monitoring (Marylebone Road, London, UK). Journal of Applied Geophysics, 105, 10–20. Curran, R.J., 2006. Method for estimating particulate emissions from aircraft brakes and tyres. QinetiQ/05/01827. Herndon, S.C., Onasch, T.B., Frank, B.P., Marr, L.C., Jayne, J.T., Canagaratna, M.R., Grygas, J., Lanni, T., Anderson, B.E., Worsnop, D., Miake-Lye, R.C., 2005. Particulate emissions from in-use commercial aircraft. Aerosol Science and Technology, 39, 799-809. Hunt, A., J. Jones, F. Oldfield., 1984. Magnetic measurements and heavy metals in atmospheric particulates of anthropogenic origin, The Science of the Total Environment, 33, 129-139. Hunt, A., 1986. The application of mineral magnetic methods to atmospheric aerosol discrimination. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, 42, 10-21. Hutton, T.J., McEnaney, B., Crelling, J.C., 1999. Structural studies of wear debris from carbon-carbon composite aircraft brakes. Carbon 37, 907-1916. Jones, M., 2008 Engine Fuel Filter Contamination. Boeing Commercial Aero Magazine QTR_03. (http://www.boeing.com/commercial/aeromagazine/articles/qtr_3_08/pdfs/AERO_Q308_article3.pdf) (accessed 8/6/13). Kim, W., Doh, S.J., Park, Y.H., Yun, S.T., 2007. Two-year magnetic monitoring in conjunction with geochemical and electron microscope data of roadside dust in Seoul, Korea. Atmos. Environ., 41, 7627-7641. Lobo, P., Whitefield, P.D., Hagen, D.E., 2013. ACRP Report 97: Measuring PM Emissions from Aircraft Auxiliary Power Units, Tires, and Brakes, Transportation Research Board. Mahashabde, A., Wolfe, P., Ashol, A., Dorbian, C., He, Q., Fan, A., Lukachko, S., Mozdzanowska, A., Wollersheim., Barrett, S.R.H., Locke, M., Waitz, I.A., 2011. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions. Progress in Aerospace Sciences, 47, 15-52. Maher, B., Moore, C., Matzka, J., 2008. Spatial variation in vehicle-derived metal pollution, identified by magnetic and elemental analysis of roadside tree leaves. Atmos. Environ., 42, 364–373. Matzka, J., Maher, B., 1999. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside tree leaves: identification of spatial and temporal variations in vehicle-derived particulates. Atmos. Environ., 33, 4565–4569. Oldfield, F., Hunt, A., Jones, M.D.H., Chester, R., Dearing, J.A., Olson, L., Prospero, J.M., 1985. Magnetic differentiation of atmospheric dusts. Nature, 317, 516-518. Penner, J.E., Lister, D.H., Griggs, D.J., Dokken, D.J., McFarland, M. (Eds.), 1999. Aviation and the Global Atmosphere. Cambridge University Press. Petrovsky, E., Ellwood, B.B., 1999, Magnetic monitoring of air-, land- and water-pollution. In: Maher, B.A., Thompson, R. (Eds.), Quaternary Climates, Environments and Magnetism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 279 – 322. Petzold, A., Fiebig, M., Fritzsche, L., Stein, C., Schumann, U., Wilson, C.W., Hurley, C.D., Arnold, F., Katragkou, E., Baltensperger, U., Gysel, M., Nyeki, S., Hitzenberger, R., Giebl, H., Hughes, K.J., Wiesen, P., Madden, P., Puxbaum, H., Vrchoticky, S., Wahl, C., 2005. Particle emissions from aircraft engines – a survey of the European Project PartEmis. Meteorologische Zeitschrift 44, 465-476. Press-Kristensen, K., 2012. ‘Air Pollution in Airports: Ultrafine particles, solutions and successful cooperation’ The Danish Ecocouncil. Richardson, N., 1986. The mineral magnetic record in recent ombrotrophic peat synchronised by fine resolution pollen analysis. Phys.Earth Planet Int., 42, 48 - 56. Rietsch, J.C., Dentzer, J., Dufour, A., Schnell, F., Vidal, L., Jacquemard, P., Gadiou, R., Vix-Guterl, C., 2009. Characterizations of carbon composites and wear debris after heavy braking demands. Carbon, 47 (1), 85–93. Robertson, D.J., Taylor, K.G., Hoon, S.R., 2003. Geochemical and mineral magnetic characterisation of urban sediment. Applied Geochemistry, 18, 269-282. Saragnese, F., Lance, L., Lanza, R., 2011. Nanometric-sized atmospheric particulate studied by magnetic analyses. Atmos. Environ., 45, 450-459. Spassov, S., Egli, R., Heller, F., Nourgaliev, D., Hannam, J., 2004. Magnetic quantification of urban pollution sources in atmospheric particulate matter. Geophysical Journal International, 159, 555-564. Starik, A.M., 2008. Gaseous and particulate emissions with jet engine exhaust and atmospheric pollution. Advances on Propulsion Technology for High-Speed Aircraft, 15, 1–22. Stettler, M.E.J., Eastham, S., Barrett, S.R.H., 2011. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part I: Emissions, Atmos. Environ., 45, 5415-5424. Thompson, R., Oldfield, F., 1986. Environmental Magnetism. Allen & Unwin, London. Walden, J., Oldfield, F., Smith, J.P., 1999. Environmental Magnetism: A Practical Guide. Quaternary Research Association, London. Wang, G., Oldfield, F., Xia, D., Chen, G., Liu, X., Zhang, W., 2012. Magnetic properties and correlation with heavy metals in urban street dust: A case study from the city of Lanzhou, China. Atmos. Environ., 46, 289-298. Webb, S., Whitefield, P.D., Miake-Lye, R.C., Timko, M.T., Thrasher, T.G., 2008. ACRP Report 6: Research needs associated with particulate emissions at airports, Transportation Research Board. Wood, E., Herndon, S., Miake-Lye, R., Nelson, D., Seeley, M., 2008. ACRP Report 7: Aircraft and Airport-Related Hazardous Pollutants: Research Needs and Analysis, Transportation Research Board. Zhu, Y., Fanning, E., Chun Yu, R., Zhang, Q., Froines, J,R., 2011. Aircraft emissions and local air quality impacts from takeoff activities at a large International Airport. Atmos. Environ., 45, 6526-6533.

PY - 2015/1/1

Y1 - 2015/1/1

N2 - The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry. The main aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tyre wear residues, have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. All samples have been analysed by utilising a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tyres) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

AB - The significant increase in global air travel which has occurred during the last fifty years has generated growing concern regarding the potential impacts associated with increasing emissions of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on health and the environment. PM within the airport environment may be derived from a range of sources. To date, however, the identification of individual sources of airport derived PM has remained elusive but constitutes a research priority for the aviation industry. The main aim of this research was to identify distinctive and characteristic fingerprints of atmospheric PM derived from various sources in an airport environment through the use of environmental magnetic measurements. PM samples from aircraft engine emissions, brake wear and tyre wear residues, have been obtained from a range of different aircraft and engine types. All samples have been analysed by utilising a range of magnetic mineral properties indicative of magnetic mineralogy and grain size. Results indicate that the dusts from the three 'aircraft' sources, (i.e. engines, brakes and tyres) display distinctive magnetic mineral characteristics which may serve as 'magnetic fingerprints' for these sources. Magnetic measurements of runway dusts collected at different locations on the runway surface also show contrasting magnetic characteristics which, when compared with those of the aircraft-derived samples, suggest that they may relate to different sources characteristic of aircraft emissions at various stages of the take-off/landing cycle. The findings suggest that magnetic measurements could have wider applicability for the differentiation and identification of PM within the airport environment.

KW - Aircraft emissions Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) Environmental magnetism Environmental pollution Magnetic ‘fingerprints’ Source attribution

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.010

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.09.010

M3 - Article

VL - 502

SP - 385

EP - 390

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

ER -