This study provides an overview of the legal and policy frameworks, describes initiatives promoted by sport and civil society organisations, identifies best practice in combatting gender-based violence in sport and makes recommendations for future action. Due to a lack of studies and methodological difficulties, reliable prevalence and incidence data on (forms of) gender-based violence in sport are strikingly absent across the EU and internationally. The terminology used to refer to forms of gender-based violence varies greatly across the EU, and there remains a lack of clarity in legal texts. The policy frameworks of fewer than half of all EU Member States make explicit reference to forms of gender-based violence in sport. Various approaches to prevent gender-based violence in sport were identified. Most initiatives target sports organisations (including federations, associations, and clubs) and coaches. These were mostly carried out on an ad-hoc basis. A holistic approach to fight gender-based violence in sport is needed that considers: an assessment of the magnitude of the problem; prevention initiatives; comprehensive legal, policy and disciplinary provisions to prosecute and punish perpetrators and to protect athletes from gender-based violence; provision of services for those subjected to acts of gender-based violence; and multi-level, multi-disciplinary and multi-actor partnerships.
- gender-based violence
- child portection