This study provides an overview of the legal and policy frameworks, describes initiatives
promoted by sport and civil society organisations, identifies best practice in combatting
gender-based violence in sport and makes recommendations for future action.
Due to a lack of studies and methodological difficulties, reliable prevalence and incidence
data on (forms of) gender-based violence in sport are strikingly absent across the EU
and internationally. The terminology used to refer to forms of gender-based violence
varies greatly across the EU, and there remains a lack of clarity in legal texts. The policy
frameworks of fewer than half of all EU Member States make explicit reference to forms
of gender-based violence in sport.
Various approaches to prevent gender-based violence in sport were identified. Most
initiatives target sports organisations (including federations, associations, and clubs) and
coaches. These were mostly carried out on an ad-hoc basis.
A holistic approach to fight gender-based violence in sport is needed that considers: an
assessment of the magnitude of the problem; prevention initiatives; comprehensive
legal, policy and disciplinary provisions to prosecute and punish perpetrators and to
protect athletes from gender-based violence; provision of services for those subjected to
acts of gender-based violence; and multi-level, multi-disciplinary and multi-actor
- gender-based violence
- child portection