A novel, moderately halophilic bacterium was isolated from the brine–seawater interface of the Shaban Deep, northern Red Sea. A polyphasic approach was used for the taxonomic characterization of this isolate, with the phenotypic and phylogenetic data clearly showing the distinctiveness of this bacterium. Cells of isolate E1L3A were Gram-negative, monotrichous cocci that showed a remarkable physiological flexibility, as could be seen by the quite broad growth ranges for oxygen, temperature, NaCl, and, to a smaller degree, pH. In addition, it was able to grow from atmospheric pressure up to 15 MPa, making it a piezotolerant bacterium. Phylogenetically, strain E1L3A represents a new, deeply branching lineage within the c-Proteobacteria, as determined by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. No close relatives are known so far, with sequence similarity to other cultivated members of the c-Proteobacteria being lower than 88%. The creation of the new genus Salinisphaera and the new species Salinisphaera shabanensis (DSM 14853; JCM 11575) for this new and highly versatile microorganism is therefore proposed.