Microparticles (MP) are shed into the circulation from endothelium following activation or apoptosis. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is expressed on endothelial cells following activation and here we report quantification of VCAM-1 positive microparticles (VCAM + MP) following simulated SCUBA dives, breathing either air or oxygen. VCAM + MP were quantified pre-dive (09:00 and 13:00) and post-dive (+1, +3 and +15 h) on both air and oxygen dives and compared with control samples taken from the same subjects. VCAM + MP followed a similar trend in all experiments, however both dives caused a change in endothelial state, as measured by VCAM + MP. A significant increase in VCAM + MP was observed 1 h post-air dive relative to the control (p = 0.013), which was not observed after the oxygen dive (p = 0.095). Oxidative stress (TBARS) was correlated with VCAM + MP. Data presented highlights the potential of MP as a biological marker of both endothelial state and decompression illness.