BACKGROUND: Prompted voiding is a behavioural therapy used mainly in North American nursing homes. It aims to improve bladder control for people with or without dementia using verbal prompts and positive reinforcement. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prompted voiding for the management of urinary incontinence in adults. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group trials register (to February 2000) and reference lists of relevant articles. We contacted investigators in the field to locate extra studies. Date of the most recent searches: February 2000. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised trials which addressed prompted voiding for the management of urinary incontinence. The trials included adult men and women, with or without cognitive impairment, diagnosed as having urinary incontinence as identified by the trialists, either by symptom classification or by urodynamic investigation. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The identified reports were assessed for eligibility. Two reviewers independently reviewed the selected studies for methodological quality. Data describing six pre-specified outcomes were extracted independently by each reviewer and consensus reached when there was disagreement. Trial investigators were consulted when clarification or further detail was required. A third reviewer was recruited to proof read the review at different stages. MAIN RESULTS: Five trials were included in the review. These involved 355 elderly people, most of whom were women. One other trial was excluded because no relevant outcome data were reported, and one trial is awaiting assessment. Prompted voiding was compared with no prompted voiding in four trials. The limited evidence suggested that prompted voiding increased self-initiated voiding and decreased incontinent episodes in the short-term. There was no evidence about long-term effects. A single small trial suggested that adding the muscle relaxant, Oxybutinin, reduced the number of incontinent episodes in the short-term: This study used a cross-over design and so did not address long-term effects. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS: There was insufficient evidence to reach firm conclusions for practice. There was suggestive, although inconclusive, evidence of short-term benefit from prompted voiding and from adding the muscle relaxant, Oxybutinin to prompted voiding.