Parallel currencies: An overview


Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review


The entry describes various types of currencies that are used along the official ones in various economies of the 21st century, the main historical precedents and main debates concerning the character of the currencies and their use. In this context it includes examples like cryptocurrencies and specialized currencies aiming at achieving a designated goal within the economy.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication Elsevier Reference Collection in Social Sciences - Encyclopedia of Monetary Policy, Financial Markets and Banking
EditorsNikolaos Apergis
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jul 2023


  • parallel currencies
  • Finance
  • monetary
  • monetary economics
  • monetary history
  • monetary system
  • financial system
  • heterodox finance
  • monetary plurality
  • community currencies
  • Cryptocurrencies
  • digital currencies
  • fintech
  • financial technology
  • digital technology
  • money


Dive into the research topics of 'Parallel currencies: An overview'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this