On drug-base incompatibilities during extrudate manufacture and fused deposition 3D printing

Michael Davies, Emily Costley, James Ren, Paul Gibbons, Annett Konodor, Majid Naderi

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Aim: 3D printing can be applied for point-of-care personalized treatment. This study aimed to determine the manufacturability and characteristics of 3D printed, drug-loaded implants for alcohol misuse. Materials & methods: Disulfiram was the drug substance used and polylactic acid (PLA) the base material. Implantable devices were designed in silico. Drug and PLA were placed into the extruder to produce a 5% blend at 1.75-mm diameter. Material characterization included differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis plus inverse GC-surface energy analyzer. Results: Implantable constructs from the PLA feedstock were acquired. The extrusion processes had a detrimental effect on the active pharmaceutical ingredient-base blend. differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis analysis indicated drug–base interactions. Thermal history was found to influence inverse GC probe interaction. Conclusion: Drug-base incompatibilities must be considered during 3D printing.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
JournalJournal of 3D Printing in Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date15 Dec 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Dec 2016


  • 3D printing
  • active
  • alcohol misuse
  • disulfiram
  • incompatibilities
  • materials characterization
  • polyactic acid


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