AIM: To compare the effects of a dedicated cardiovascular risk factor clinic run by a nurse consultant with routine diabetes clinic attendance in achieving glycaemic and cardiovascular risk targets in patients with Type 1 diabetes.
METHODS: Eighty-one patients (45 male, mean age 34.6 years, mean duration of diabetes 15 years) with an HbA(1c) ≥ 8% (64 mmol/mol) and at least one other risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease were randomized to receive either routine care or intensive nurse-led cardiovascular risk factor intervention. HbA(1c) , non-fasting lipid profile, blood pressure, weight, BMI and insulin dose were recorded at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months.
RESULTS: At baseline there were no differences between the groups. At 12 months, there were significant improvements in the nurse-led cardiovascular risk factor group: HbA(1c) [10.1% (87 mmol/mol) vs. 9.3% (78 mmol/mol), P < 0.001], total cholesterol (5.8 vs. 4.3 mmol/l, P < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (127 vs. 115 mmHg, P < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (71 vs. 65 mmHg, P < 0.05). Improvements were maintained in all variables at 24 months except diastolic blood pressure. In the routine group, only total cholesterol improved significantly (5.8 vs. 5.2 mmol/l, P < 0.01) after 12 months and this was maintained at 24 months.
CONCLUSION: A nurse consultant cardiovascular risk factor clinic has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk targets in Type 1 diabetes, probably attributable to the increased use of lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive agents and this was maintained at 24 months. Glycaemic control also improved.
- Ambulatory Care
- Blood Glucose/analysis
- Cardiovascular Diseases/nursing
- Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications
- Diabetic Angiopathies/nursing
- Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis
- Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage
- Risk Reduction Behavior