Machine learning for the detection and diagnosis of cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s Disease: a systematic review

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Abstract

Background: Parkinson's Disease is the second most common neurological disease in over 60s. Cognitive impairment is a major clinical symptom, with risk of severe dysfunction up to 20 years post-diagnosis. Processes for detection and diagnosis of cognitive impairments are not sufficient to predict decline at an early stage for significant impact. Ageing populations, neurologist shortages and subjective interpretations reduce the effectiveness of decisions and diagnoses. Researchers are now utilising machine learning for detection and diagnosis of cognitive impairment
based on symptom presentation and clinical investigation. This work aims to provide an overview of published studies applying machine learning to detecting and diagnosing cognitive impairment, evaluate the feasibility of implemented methods, their impacts, and provide suitable recommendations for methods, modalities and outcomes.
Methods: To provide an overview of the machine learning techniques, data sources and modalities used for detection and diagnosis of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's Disease, we conducted a review of studies published on the PubMed, IEEE Xplore, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases. 70 studies were included in this review, with the most relevant information extracted from each. From each study, strategy, modalities,
sources, methods and outcomes were extracted.
Results: Literatures demonstrate that machine learning techniques have potential to provide considerable insight into investigation of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's Disease. Our review demonstrates the versatility of machine learning in analysing a wide range of different modalities for the detection and diagnosis of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's Disease, including imaging, EEG, speech and more, yielding notable diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions: Machine learning based interventions have the potential to glean meaningful insight from data, and may offer non-invasive means of enhancing cognitive impairment assessment, providing clear and formidable potential for implementation of machine learning into clinical practice.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages37
JournalPLoS ONE
Early online date16 May 2024
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 16 May 2024

Keywords

  • Machine Learning
  • Parkinson's Disease
  • Cognitive Impairment
  • Parkinson's Disease Dementia
  • Deep Learning

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