Joint hypermobility in young gymnasts: Implications for injury and performance

ROSS ARMSTRONG

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Objectives: Hypermobility in gymnastics has both performance and injury implications. There is a paucity of studies that have reported joint hypermobility scores in young gymnasts and there is a need to consider joint hypermobility across different gender, age and performance levels. This study aimed to report the prevalence of joint hypermobility and range of motion values for the hip, shoulder, ankle and spine in male and female gymnasts. Methods: This study determined joint hypermobility via the Beighton score and range of motion for hip flexion, extension, abduction, shoulder flexion, ankle plantarflexion and lumbar extension in 25 male gymnasts (age:10.44±2.89 years, height:142.16±20.00cm, mass: 28.00±7.43kg and 25 female gymnasts (age:11.16±2.70 years,height: 141.55±22.34cm,mass: 32.33±7.99kg).Results: Joint hypermobility ranged from 56% (male gymnasts) to 68% (female gymnasts). The highest Beighton score was observed in female gymnasts (4.76±2.05), female gymnasts ≤13 years (4.93±1.87) and male national level gymnasts (5.67±1.15). No significant differences existed for Beighton scores between male and female gymnasts for gender (p=0.26) and age (p=0.095). Significant differences existed between male and female gymnasts for left hip extension (p=0.001), right hip extension (p=0.001), left hip abduction (p=0.001), right hip abduction (p=0.001) and lumbar extension (p=0.001) with all range of motion greater in females. For age and gender groups, significant differences existed between female gymnasts <13 and male gymnasts ≥13 for hip flexion, hip extension and hip abduction movements bilaterally and between female gymnasts <13 and male gymnasts <13 significant differences existed for all hip extension and hip abduction bilaterally. Between female gymnasts <13 and ≥13 significant differences existed for shoulder flexion bilaterally. Between female gymnasts ≥13 and male gymnasts <13 significant differences existed for all shoulder flexion bilaterally and for lumbar extension which was significantly greater in the <13 female gymnasts than ≥13 male gymnasts. A significant difference existed between male and female gymnasts for left hip extension (p=0.01), right hip extension (p=0.01) and left hip abduction (p=0.001) and right hip abduction (p=0.001)Conclusion: No significant differences were observed for the BS between gender, age and performance level groups however significant differences did exist for several range of motion values particularly at the hip in relation to gender, age and level and therefore this joint may be an important focus for performance enhancement and injury prevention. These differences highlight the importance of range of motion measurement in addition to BS measurement and the need to consider gender age and gymnastic level when working with child gymnasts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)354-375
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Education, Health and Sport
Volume8
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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Joint Instability
Hip
Wounds and Injuries
Articular Range of Motion
Gymnastics
Ankle

Keywords

  • Age
  • Beighton Score
  • Gender
  • Gymnastic Level
  • Joint Hypermobility
  • Flexibility

Cite this

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title = "Joint hypermobility in young gymnasts: Implications for injury and performance",
abstract = "Objectives: Hypermobility in gymnastics has both performance and injury implications. There is a paucity of studies that have reported joint hypermobility scores in young gymnasts and there is a need to consider joint hypermobility across different gender, age and performance levels. This study aimed to report the prevalence of joint hypermobility and range of motion values for the hip, shoulder, ankle and spine in male and female gymnasts. Methods: This study determined joint hypermobility via the Beighton score and range of motion for hip flexion, extension, abduction, shoulder flexion, ankle plantarflexion and lumbar extension in 25 male gymnasts (age:10.44±2.89 years, height:142.16±20.00cm, mass: 28.00±7.43kg and 25 female gymnasts (age:11.16±2.70 years,height: 141.55±22.34cm,mass: 32.33±7.99kg).Results: Joint hypermobility ranged from 56{\%} (male gymnasts) to 68{\%} (female gymnasts). The highest Beighton score was observed in female gymnasts (4.76±2.05), female gymnasts ≤13 years (4.93±1.87) and male national level gymnasts (5.67±1.15). No significant differences existed for Beighton scores between male and female gymnasts for gender (p=0.26) and age (p=0.095). Significant differences existed between male and female gymnasts for left hip extension (p=0.001), right hip extension (p=0.001), left hip abduction (p=0.001), right hip abduction (p=0.001) and lumbar extension (p=0.001) with all range of motion greater in females. For age and gender groups, significant differences existed between female gymnasts <13 and male gymnasts ≥13 for hip flexion, hip extension and hip abduction movements bilaterally and between female gymnasts <13 and male gymnasts <13 significant differences existed for all hip extension and hip abduction bilaterally. Between female gymnasts <13 and ≥13 significant differences existed for shoulder flexion bilaterally. Between female gymnasts ≥13 and male gymnasts <13 significant differences existed for all shoulder flexion bilaterally and for lumbar extension which was significantly greater in the <13 female gymnasts than ≥13 male gymnasts. A significant difference existed between male and female gymnasts for left hip extension (p=0.01), right hip extension (p=0.01) and left hip abduction (p=0.001) and right hip abduction (p=0.001)Conclusion: No significant differences were observed for the BS between gender, age and performance level groups however significant differences did exist for several range of motion values particularly at the hip in relation to gender, age and level and therefore this joint may be an important focus for performance enhancement and injury prevention. These differences highlight the importance of range of motion measurement in addition to BS measurement and the need to consider gender age and gymnastic level when working with child gymnasts.",
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Joint hypermobility in young gymnasts: Implications for injury and performance. / ARMSTRONG, ROSS.

In: Journal of Education, Health and Sport, Vol. 8 , No. 11, 2018, p. 354-375.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Joint hypermobility in young gymnasts: Implications for injury and performance

AU - ARMSTRONG, ROSS

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Objectives: Hypermobility in gymnastics has both performance and injury implications. There is a paucity of studies that have reported joint hypermobility scores in young gymnasts and there is a need to consider joint hypermobility across different gender, age and performance levels. This study aimed to report the prevalence of joint hypermobility and range of motion values for the hip, shoulder, ankle and spine in male and female gymnasts. Methods: This study determined joint hypermobility via the Beighton score and range of motion for hip flexion, extension, abduction, shoulder flexion, ankle plantarflexion and lumbar extension in 25 male gymnasts (age:10.44±2.89 years, height:142.16±20.00cm, mass: 28.00±7.43kg and 25 female gymnasts (age:11.16±2.70 years,height: 141.55±22.34cm,mass: 32.33±7.99kg).Results: Joint hypermobility ranged from 56% (male gymnasts) to 68% (female gymnasts). The highest Beighton score was observed in female gymnasts (4.76±2.05), female gymnasts ≤13 years (4.93±1.87) and male national level gymnasts (5.67±1.15). No significant differences existed for Beighton scores between male and female gymnasts for gender (p=0.26) and age (p=0.095). Significant differences existed between male and female gymnasts for left hip extension (p=0.001), right hip extension (p=0.001), left hip abduction (p=0.001), right hip abduction (p=0.001) and lumbar extension (p=0.001) with all range of motion greater in females. For age and gender groups, significant differences existed between female gymnasts <13 and male gymnasts ≥13 for hip flexion, hip extension and hip abduction movements bilaterally and between female gymnasts <13 and male gymnasts <13 significant differences existed for all hip extension and hip abduction bilaterally. Between female gymnasts <13 and ≥13 significant differences existed for shoulder flexion bilaterally. Between female gymnasts ≥13 and male gymnasts <13 significant differences existed for all shoulder flexion bilaterally and for lumbar extension which was significantly greater in the <13 female gymnasts than ≥13 male gymnasts. A significant difference existed between male and female gymnasts for left hip extension (p=0.01), right hip extension (p=0.01) and left hip abduction (p=0.001) and right hip abduction (p=0.001)Conclusion: No significant differences were observed for the BS between gender, age and performance level groups however significant differences did exist for several range of motion values particularly at the hip in relation to gender, age and level and therefore this joint may be an important focus for performance enhancement and injury prevention. These differences highlight the importance of range of motion measurement in addition to BS measurement and the need to consider gender age and gymnastic level when working with child gymnasts.

AB - Objectives: Hypermobility in gymnastics has both performance and injury implications. There is a paucity of studies that have reported joint hypermobility scores in young gymnasts and there is a need to consider joint hypermobility across different gender, age and performance levels. This study aimed to report the prevalence of joint hypermobility and range of motion values for the hip, shoulder, ankle and spine in male and female gymnasts. Methods: This study determined joint hypermobility via the Beighton score and range of motion for hip flexion, extension, abduction, shoulder flexion, ankle plantarflexion and lumbar extension in 25 male gymnasts (age:10.44±2.89 years, height:142.16±20.00cm, mass: 28.00±7.43kg and 25 female gymnasts (age:11.16±2.70 years,height: 141.55±22.34cm,mass: 32.33±7.99kg).Results: Joint hypermobility ranged from 56% (male gymnasts) to 68% (female gymnasts). The highest Beighton score was observed in female gymnasts (4.76±2.05), female gymnasts ≤13 years (4.93±1.87) and male national level gymnasts (5.67±1.15). No significant differences existed for Beighton scores between male and female gymnasts for gender (p=0.26) and age (p=0.095). Significant differences existed between male and female gymnasts for left hip extension (p=0.001), right hip extension (p=0.001), left hip abduction (p=0.001), right hip abduction (p=0.001) and lumbar extension (p=0.001) with all range of motion greater in females. For age and gender groups, significant differences existed between female gymnasts <13 and male gymnasts ≥13 for hip flexion, hip extension and hip abduction movements bilaterally and between female gymnasts <13 and male gymnasts <13 significant differences existed for all hip extension and hip abduction bilaterally. Between female gymnasts <13 and ≥13 significant differences existed for shoulder flexion bilaterally. Between female gymnasts ≥13 and male gymnasts <13 significant differences existed for all shoulder flexion bilaterally and for lumbar extension which was significantly greater in the <13 female gymnasts than ≥13 male gymnasts. A significant difference existed between male and female gymnasts for left hip extension (p=0.01), right hip extension (p=0.01) and left hip abduction (p=0.001) and right hip abduction (p=0.001)Conclusion: No significant differences were observed for the BS between gender, age and performance level groups however significant differences did exist for several range of motion values particularly at the hip in relation to gender, age and level and therefore this joint may be an important focus for performance enhancement and injury prevention. These differences highlight the importance of range of motion measurement in addition to BS measurement and the need to consider gender age and gymnastic level when working with child gymnasts.

KW - Age

KW - Beighton Score

KW - Gender

KW - Gymnastic Level

KW - Joint Hypermobility

KW - Flexibility

U2 - 10.5281/zenodo.1493831

DO - 10.5281/zenodo.1493831

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 354

EP - 375

JO - Journal of Education, Health and Sport

JF - Journal of Education, Health and Sport

SN - 2391-8306

IS - 11

ER -