The implementation of single assessment for vulnerable older people by 2004 was introduced in the National Health Services (NHS) Plan and the National Service Framework for Older People. The evaluation reported and discussed here is of a single assessment and integrated care process (SAP, ICP) piloted and subsequently introduced into a NorthWest of England Primary Care Trust. The initiative introduced enabled district nurses to undertake social assessments and fulﬁl the role of care manager for people already on their caseloads whose social needs increased. The objectives of the evaluation were to explore the impact of the initiative on service users and on district nurses and social workers professional roles compared to the previous system of separate assessments and to examine any barriers to the implementation of single assessment and integrated care. The perceptions of health and social care professionals and service users were collected via telephone and face-to-face semi-structured interviews (n � 21). All professionals could identify both actual and potential beneﬁts and disadvantages to service users of single assessment and integrated care planning. The areas important to respondents included a SAP that is, more efﬁcient, without duplication; familiarity with assessor; timeliness of assessment; increased co-ordination and the quality of assessments. Many of these are also discussed in terms of a change in professional roles, mainly that of district nurses. The introduction of the ICP was not as successful as had been anticipated; a number of reasons for this were identiﬁed. The requirement to assess clients’ ﬁnancial circumstances was the main conﬂict reported for district nurses compared to their traditional role. Issues relating to their lack of knowledge and familiarity of the social care sector were also highlighted. The discussion focuses on how these issues could be addressed namely through education and training, and facilitating integrated working.