Background: Insecticide resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is threatening the success of malaria control programmes. This is particularly true in Benin where pyrethroid resistance has been linked to the failure of insecticide treated bed nets. The role of mutations in the insecticide target sites in conferring resistance has been clearly established. In this study, the contribution of other potential resistance mechanisms was investigated in Anopheles gambiae s.s. from a number of localities in Southern Benin and Nigeria. The mosquitoes were sampled from a variety of breeding sites in a preliminary attempt to investigate the role of contamination of mosquito breeding sites in selecting for resistance in adult mosquitoes. Results: All mosquitoes sampled belonged to the M form of An. gambiae s.s. There were high levels of permethrin resistance in an agricultural area (Akron) and an urban area (Gbedjromede), low levels of resistance in mosquito samples from an oil contaminated site (Ojoo) and complete susceptibility in the rural Orogun location. The target site mutation kdrW was detected at high levels in two of the populations (Akron f = 0.86 and Gbedjromede f = 0.84) but was not detected in Ojoo or Orogun. Microarray analysis using the Anopheles gambiae detox chip identified two P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 up regulated in all three populations, the former was expressed at particularly high levels in the Akron (12.4-fold) and Ojoo (7.4-fold) populations compared to the susceptible population. Additional detoxification and redox genes were also over expressed in one or more populations including two cuticular pre-cursor genes which were elevated in two of the three resistant populations. Conclusion: Multiple resistance mechanisms incurred in the different breeding sites contribute to resistance to permethrin in Benin. The cytochrome P450 genes, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are upregulated in all three resistant populations analysed. Several additional potential resistance mechanisms were also identified that warrant further investigation. Metabolic genes were over expressed irrespective of the presence of kdr, the latter resistance mechanism being absent in one resistant population. The discovery that mosquitoes collected from different types of breeding sites display differing profiles of metabolic genes at the adult stage may reflect the influence of a range of xenobiotics on selecting for resistance in mosquitoes.
Djouaka, R. F., Bakare, A. A., Coulibaly, O. N., Akogbeto, M. C., Ranson, H., Hemingway, J., & Strode, C. (2008). Expression of the cytochrome P450s, CYP6P3 and CYP6M2 are significantly elevated in multiple pyrethroid resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Southern Benin and Nigeria. BMC Genomics, 9(1), 538. https://doi.org/doi:10.1186/1471-2164-9-538