This chapter explores the currency of violence for those engaged in the urban environment. It examines the role of violence across a spectrum of organized crime groups, starting with the earlier studies on more formal hierarchical groups, such as the Cosa Nostra and Yakuza. The chapter examines the characteristics of a cohort of young men, identified as being on the periphery of organized crime to establish early experiences. Structured, hierarchical and mass criminal organizations have been found across the globe, including La Eme in Mexico, the triad in China, and the Russian Mafia. The UK organized crime offender is predominantly a non-adolescent male, a significant number of whom are early onset and persistent offenders, with a prior conviction history dominated by drug offences. The chapter argues that the reason both violence and organized crime are contested concepts is because they emerge in many different forms.
|Title of host publication||The Handbook of Collective Violence Current Developments and Understanding|
|Subtitle of host publication||Current Developments and Understanding|
|Editors||Carol A. Ireland, Michael Lewis, Anthony Lopez, Jane L. Ireland|
|Publisher||Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group|
|Number of pages||12|
|Publication status||Published - 22 Apr 2020|
- organised crime