Live workflow monitoring and the resulting user interaction in industrial settings faces a number of challenges. A formal workflow may be unknown or implicit, data may be sparse and certain isolated actions may be undetectable given current visual feature extraction technology. This paper attempts to address these problems by inducing a structural workflow model from multiple expert demonstrations. When interacting with a naive user, this workflow is combined with spatial and temporal information, under a Bayesian framework, to give appropriate feedback and instruction. Structural information is captured by translating a Markov chain of actions into a simple place/transition petri-net. This novel petri-net structure maintains a continuous record of the current workbench configuration and allows multiple sub-sequences to be monitored without resorting to second order processes. This allows the user to switch between multiple sub-tasks, while still receiving informative feedback from the system. As this model captures the complete workflow, human inspection of safety critical processes and expert annotation of user instructions can be made. Activity classification and user instruction results show a significant on-line performance improvement when compared to the existing Hidden Markov Model or pLSA based state of the art. Further analysis reveals that the majority of our model's classification errors are caused by small de-synchronisation events rather than significant workflow deviations. We conclude with a discussion of the generalisability of the induced place/transition petri-net to other activity recognition tasks and summarise the developments of this model.
|Publication status||Published - 14 Nov 2011|
|Event||Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI) - Alicante, Spain|
Duration: 14 Nov 2011 → 18 Nov 2011
|Conference||Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) International Conference on Multimodal Interaction (ICMI)|
|Period||14/11/11 → 18/11/11|