Executive Summary: International Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pediatric Ventilator Liberation, A Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network Document

Samer Abu-Sultaneh*, Narayan Prabhu Iyer, Analía Fernández, Michael Gaies, Sebastián González-Dambrauskas, Justin Christian Hotz, Martin C.J. Kneyber, Yolanda M. Lopez-Fernández, Alexandre T. Rotta, David K. Werho, Arun Kumar Baranwal, Bronagh Blackwood, Hannah J. Craven, Martha A.Q. Curley, Sandrine Essouri, Jose Roberto Fioretto, Silvia M.M. Hartmann, Philippe Jouvet, Steven Kwasi Korang, Gerrard F. RaffertyPadmanabhan Ramnarayan, Louise Rose, Lyvonne N. Tume, Elizabeth C. Whipple, Judith J.M. Wong, Guillaume Emeriaud, Christopher W. Mastropietro, Natalie Napolitano, Christopher J.L. Newth, Robinder G. Khemani, the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) Network

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
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Rationale: Pediatric-specific ventilator liberation guidelines are lacking despite the many studies exploring elements of extubation readiness testing. The lack of clinical practice guidelines has led to significant and unnecessary variation in methods used to assess pediatric patients’ readiness for extubation. Methods: Twenty-six international experts comprised a multiprofessional panel to establish pediatrics-specific ventilator liberation clinical practice guidelines, focusing on acutely hospitalized children receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours. Eleven key questions were identified and first prioritized using the Modified Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence. A systematic review was conducted for questions that did not meet an a priori threshold of >80% agreement, with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodologies applied to develop the guidelines. The panel evaluated the evidence and drafted and voted on the recommendations. Measurements and Main Results: Three questions related to systematic screening using an extubation readiness testing bundle and a spontaneous breathing trial as part of the bundle met Modified Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations criteria of >80% agreement. For the remaining eight questions, five systematic reviews yielded 12 recommendations related to the methods and duration of spontaneous breathing trials, measures of respiratory muscle strength, assessment of risk of postextubation upper airway obstruction and its prevention, use of postextubation noninvasive respiratory support, and sedation. Most recommendations were conditional and based on low to very low certainty of evidence. Conclusions: This clinical practice guideline provides a conceptual framework with evidence-based recommendations for best practices related to pediatric ventilator liberation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17-28
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Issue number1
Early online date1 Jan 2023
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2023


  • airway extubation
  • clinical protocols
  • mechanical ventilators
  • pediatric intensive care units
  • ventilator weaning


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