Executive Summary: International Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pediatric Ventilator liberation, A PALISI Network Document

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Pediatric specific ventilator liberation guidelines are lacking despite the many studies exploring elements of extubation readiness testing. The lack of clinical practice guidelines has led to significant and unnecessary variation in methods used to assess pediatric patients’ readiness for extubation.

Twenty-six international experts comprised a multi-professional panel to establish pediatric specific ventilator liberation clinical practice guidelines, focusing on acutely hospitalized children receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours. Eleven key questions were identified and first prioritized using the Modified Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations and Evidence. Systematic review was conducted for questions which did not meet an a-priori threshold of ≥80% agreement, with Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodologies applied to develop the guidelines. The panel evaluated the evidence, drafted, and voted on the recommendations.

Measurements and Main Results:
Three questions related to systematic screening, using an extubation readiness testing bundle and use of a spontaneous breathing trial as part of the bundle met Modified Convergence of Opinion on Recommendations criteria of ≥80% agreement. For the remaining 8 questions, 5 systematic reviews yielded 12 recommendations related to the methods and duration of spontaneous breathing trials; measures of respiratory muscle strength; assessment of risk of post-extubation upper airway obstruction and its prevention; use of post-extubation non-invasive respiratory support; and sedation. Most recommendations were conditional and based on low to very low certainty of evidence.

This clinical practice guideline provides a conceptual framework with evidence-based recommendations for best practices related to pediatric ventilator liberation.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Early online date15 Aug 2022
Publication statusPublished - 15 Aug 2022


  • Airway extubation
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Mechanical ventilators
  • Pediatric intensive care units
  • Ventilator weaning

Research Centres

  • Cardio-Respiratory Research Centre

Research Groups

  • Children and Young People Research Network


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