Enteric-coated sodium bicarbonate attenuates gastrointestinal side-effects: Enteric-coated sodium bicarbonate


Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
113 Downloads (Pure)


Enteric-formulated capsules can mitigate gastrointestinal (GI) side- effects following sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion however, it remains unclear how encapsulation alters post-ingestion symptoms and acid-base balance. The current study aims to identify the optimal ingestion form to mitigate GI distress following NaHCO3 ingestion. Fourteen trained males ingested 300 mg∙kg-1 body mass (BM) NaHCO3 in gelatine (GEL), delayed-release (DEL) and enteric-coated (ENT) capsules or placebo (PLA) in a randomised crossover design. Blood bicarbonate anion concentration [HCO3–], potential hydrogen (pH) and GI symptoms were measured pre- and post-ingestion for 3 h. Fewer GI symptoms were reported with ENT NaHCO3 than with GEL (P = 0.012) but not DEL (P = 0.106) in the post-ingestion phase. Symptom severity decreased with DEL (4.6 ± 2.8 AU) compared to GEL (7.0 ± 2.6 AU; P = 0.001) and were lower with ENT (2.8 ± 1.9 AU) than with both GEL (P < 0.0005) and DEL (P = 0.044) NaHCO3. Blood [HCO3–] increased in all NaHCO3 conditions compared to PLA (P < 0.0005), although this was lower with ENT than GEL (P = 0.001) and DEL (P <0.0005) NaHCO3. Changes in peak blood pH were reduced with ENT than with GEL (P = 0.047) and DEL (P = 0.047) NaHCO3 with no other differences between conditions. Ingestion of ENT NaHCO3 attenuates GI disturbances up to 3h post-ingestion. Therefore, ENT ingestion forms may be favourable for those who report GI disturbances with NaHCO3 supplementation, or for those who have previously been deterred from its use altogether.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)62-68
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Issue number1
Early online date21 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020


  • acid-base balance
  • buffering agent
  • delayed-release
  • Buffering agent
  • Acid–base balance
  • Delayed-release

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Enteric-coated sodium bicarbonate attenuates gastrointestinal side-effects: Enteric-coated sodium bicarbonate'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this