OBJECTIVES: To explore enteral feeding practices and the achievement of energy targets in children on noninvasive respiratory support, in four European PICUs.
DESIGN: A four-center retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: Four PICUs: Bristol, United Kingdom; Lyon, France; Madrid, Spain; and Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
PATIENTS: Children in PICU who required acute noninvasive respiratory support in the first 7 days. The primary outcome was achievement of standardized kcal/goal.
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 325 children were included (Bristol 104; Lyon 99; Madrid 72; and Rotterdam 50). The median (interquartile range) age and weight were 3 months (1-16 mo) and 5 kg (4-10 mo), respectively, with 66% admitted with respiratory failure. There were large between-center variations in practices. Overall, 190/325 (58.5%) received noninvasive respiratory support in order to prevent intubation and 41.5% after extubation. The main modes of noninvasive respiratory support used were high-flow nasal cannula 43.6%, bilevel positive airway pressure 33.2%, and continuous positive airway pressure 21.2%. Most children (77.8%) were fed gastrically (48.4% continuously) and the median time to the first feed after noninvasive respiratory support initiation was 4 hours (interquartile range, 1-9 hr). The median percentage of time a child was nil per oral while on noninvasive respiratory support was 4 hours (2-13 hr). Overall, children received a median of 56% (25-82%) of their energy goals compared with a standardized target of 0.85 of the recommended dietary allowance. Patients receiving step-up noninvasive respiratory support (p = < 0.001), those on bilevel positive airway pressure or continuous positive airway pressure (compared with high-flow nasal cannula) (p = < 0.001), and those on continuous feeds (p = < 0.001) achieved significantly more of their kcal goal. Gastrointestinal complications varied from 4.8-20%, with the most common reported being vomiting in 54/325 (16.6%), other complications occurred in 40/325 (12.3%) children, but pulmonary aspiration was rare 5/325 (1.5%).
CONCLUSIONS: Children on noninvasive respiratory support tolerated feeding well, with relatively few complications, but prospective trials are now required to determine the optimal timing and feeding method for these children.
- Continuous Positive Airway Pressure
- Enteral Nutrition
- Noninvasive Ventilation
- Prospective Studies
- Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy
- Retrospective Studies
- United Kingdom