Endocarditis in a large district general hospital: A study of the microbiological spectrum between 2000 and 2011

Reza Ashrafi*, Ewan McKay, Lloyd Ebden, Julia Jones, Gershan K. Davis, Malcolm I. Burgess

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Infective endocarditis is one of three common cardiac infections in the United Kingdom, in addition to myocarditis and pericarditis, with a reported incidence of 1.7 to 6.2 cases per 100,000 patient years. Infective endocarditis can often have serious consequences and a wide variety of organisms may be the causative pathogen. There are little published data regarding the exact spectrum of organisms that cause endocarditis in the United Kingdom and whether organisms such as streptococci still dominate. In the present study, all cases of endocarditis at the authors' institution, representing a typical nontertiary centre, were retrospectively examined and audited to provide a snapshot of the organism spectrum in these patients. The cases of more than 120 patients who were coded as having endocarditis by the institution's clinical coding department during the period between December 2000 and January 2011 were examined. Microbiological tests and clinical case notes of all patients were reviewed. Of the 101 patients diagnosed with and treated for endocarditis, 64 were male, with a mean age of 60.57 years. The most common organisms identified were Streptococcus species (31%), Staphylococcus aureus (27%) and Enterococcus faecalis (21%). The organisms with the highest associated mortality rate were S aureus and the 'other organism' group, which included non-HACEK group (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Cardiobacterium hominis, Eikenella corrodens and Kingella species) pathogens such as Candida albicans. Streptococcus species and S aureus remain the main cause of endocarditis in a typical hospital setting in the United Kingdom, although in a smaller proportion of cases than historical data suggests. Overall, mortality remains high, and the clinician should remain vigilant to endocarditis in any patient with a positive blood culture because the number of cases of endocarditis caused by less typical organisms are increasing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-178
Number of pages4
JournalExperimental and Clinical Cardiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2012


  • Endocarditis
  • Microbiology
  • Mortality
  • Outcomes


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