Efficacy of High-Dose Vitamin D Supplements for Elite Athletes

J. OWENS DANIEL, C. Y. TANG JONATHAN, J. BRADLEY WARREN, S. SPARKS ANDY, D. FRASER WILLIAM, P. MORTON JAMES, L. CLOSE GRAEME

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose Supplementation with dietary forms of vitamin D is commonplace in clinical medicine, elite athletic cohorts, and the general population, yet the response of all major vitamin D metabolites to high doses of vitamin D is poorly characterized. We aimed to identify the responses of all major vitamin D metabolites to moderate- and high-dose supplemental vitamin D 3. Methods A repeated-measures design was implemented in which 46 elite professional European athletes were block randomized based on their basal 25[OH]D concentration into two treatment groups. Athletes received either 35,000 or 70,000 IU·wk -1 vitamin D 3 for 12 wk, and 42 athletes completed the trial. Blood samples were collected for 18 wk to monitor the response to supplementation and withdrawal from supplementation. Results Both doses led to significant increases in serum 25[OH]D, and 1,25[OH] 2D 3. 70,000 IU·wk -1 also resulted in a significant increase of the metabolite 24,25[OH] 2D at weeks 6 and 12 that persisted after supplementation withdrawal at week 18, despite a marked decrease in 1,25[OH] 2D 3. Intact parathyroid hormone was decreased in both groups by week 6 and remained suppressed throughout the trial. Conclusions High-dose vitamin D 3 supplementation (70,000 IU·wk -1) may be detrimental for its intended purposes because of increased 24,25[OH] 2D production. Rapid withdrawal from high-dose supplementation may inhibit the bioactivity of 1,25[OH] 2D 3 as a consequence of sustained increases in 24,25[OH] 2D that persist as 25[OH]D and 1,25[OH] 2D concentrations decrease. These data imply that lower doses of vitamin D 3 ingested frequently may be most appropriate and gradual withdrawal from supplementation as opposed to rapid withdrawal may be favorable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)349-356
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and science in sports
Volume49
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D
  • 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D
  • 25-HYDROXYVITAMIN D
  • PARATHYROID HORMONE
  • Vitamin D

Research Groups

  • Sports Performance, Exercise & Nutrition Research Group

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