Effects of Attentional Strategies on Novice Dart Throwing, Quiet Eye Duration and Pupillary Responses

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

Abstract

This study examined the effects of focus of
attention (FOA) instructions on learning a dart throwing task,
quiet eye duration (QED) and pupillary responses. Thirty-six
novices (M age ¼ 33.6, SD ¼ 19.7) learned using either (a)
internal-focus (arm movement), (b) external-focus (target/dart)
or (c) control instructions before completing retention and
transfer tests 10 days later. FOA strategies did not significantly
benefit dart throwing learning or performance. QED was associated with performance in the transfer task, and pupillary constriction occurred during the QED. The content of FOA
instructions may have limited anticipated performance benefits
and reduced the FOA influence on QED. Pupillary constriction
reflected increased cognitive effort during QED, suggesting an
important feature of future precision aiming research.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Motor Behavior
Volume54
Issue number1
Early online date4 Jan 2021
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4 Jan 2021

Keywords

  • focus of attention
  • quiet eye
  • pupillometry
  • motor learning
  • cognitive effort

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