Development and initial validation of the Life Skills Scale for Sport

Lorcan Cronin, Justine Allen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

90 Citations (Scopus)
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Objectives: The aim of this research was to develop a measure of life skills development through sport. Method: Four studies were conducted to develop the Life Skills Scale for Sport (LSSS). Study 1 developed items for the scale and included 39 reviewers’ assessment of content validity. Study 2 included 338 youth sport participants and used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and descriptive statistics to reduce the number of items in the scale and explore the factor structure of each subscale and the whole scale. Study 3 included 223 youth sport participants and assessed the factor structure of the scale using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and bifactor modeling. Study 4 investigated the test-retest reliability of the scale over a two-week period with 37 youth sport participants. Results: Study 1 resulted in the development of the initial 144-item LSSS and provided content validity evidence for all items. Study 2 refined the scale to 47 items and provided preliminary evidence for the unidimensional factor structure of each subscale. Study 3 supported the factorial validity of the scale, with ESEM solutions providing the best fit and resulting in more differentiated factors. Study 4 provided evidence for the test-retest reliability of the scale. Conclusions: Collectively, these studies provided initial evidence for the validity and reliability of the LSSS; a measure which can be used by researchers and practitioners to assess participants’ perceived life skills development through sport.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-119
Number of pages15
JournalPsychology of Sport & Exercise
Early online date3 Nov 2016
Publication statusPublished - 31 Jan 2017


  • positive youth development
  • psychosocialdevelopment
  • psychosocial assets
  • youthsport
  • exploratory structural equationmodeling
  • bifactor modeling
  • Youth sport
  • Positive youth development
  • Bifactor modeling
  • Exploratory structural equation modeling
  • Psychosocial development
  • Psychosocial assets


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