Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and health-related quality of life in primary school children in England: the mediating role of psychological correlates of physical activity

Alba Solera-Sanchez*, Danielle Christian, Maria-Reyes Beltran-Valls, Mireira Adelantado-Renau, RHONA MARTIN-SMITH, MHAIRI MACDONALD, RICHARD TYLER, Stuart J. Fairclough

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Purpose. The aims were (i) to analyse the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between children’s cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and (ii) to examine whether these associations were mediated by physical activity self-efficacy and physical activity enjoyment.
Methods. This study involved 383 children (10.0±0.5 years) recruited from 20 primary schools in northwest England. Data were collected on two occasions 12 weeks apart. The number of laps completed in the 20m Shuttle Run Test was used as the CRF indicator. HRQoL was assessed using the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire. Physical activity self-efficacy and enjoyment were assessed with the social-cognitive and Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale questionnaires, respectively. Linear mixed models with random intercepts (schools) assessed associations between CRF and HRQoL cross-sectionally, and longitudinally. Boot-strapped mediation procedures were performed, and indirect effects (IE) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) not including zero considered as statistically significant. Analyses were adjusted for sex, time of the year, socioeconomic status, waist-to-height ratio, maturation and physical activity.
Results. CRF was cross-sectionally associated with HRQoL (β=0.09; 95%CI=0.02, 0.16, p=0.015). In the longitudinal analysis, CRF at baseline was associated with HRQoL at 12 weeks after additionally controlling for baseline HRQoL (β=0.08; 95%CI=0.002, p=0.15, p=0.045). Cross-sectionally, physical activity self-efficacy and enjoyment acted individually as mediators in the relationship between CRF and HRQoL (IE=0.069; 95%CI:0.038; p=0.105 and IE=0.045; 95%CI:0.016; p=0.080, respectively). In the longitudinal analysis physical activity self-efficacy showed a significant mediating effect (IE=0.025; 95%CI=0.004; p=0.054).
Conclusions. Our findings highlight the influence of CRF on children’s psychological correlates of physical activity and their overall HRQoL.
Original languageEnglish
JournalPerspectives in Public Health
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 22 Jul 2022

Keywords

  • Health
  • physical fitness
  • quality of life
  • youth

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