The endothelium is an established modulator of vascular tone; however the recent discovery of the anti-contractile nature of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) suggests that the fat which surrounds many blood vessels can also modulate vascular tone. Both the endothelium and PVAT secrete vasoactive substances, which regulate vascular function. Many of these factors are common to both the endothelium and PVAT; therefore, this review will highlight the potential shared mechanisms in modulation of vascular tone. Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of many vascular diseases, including hypertension and obesity. Moreover, PVAT dysfunction is now being reported in several cardio-metabolic disorders. Thus, this review will also discuss the mechanistic insights into endothelial and PVAT dysfunction in order to evaluate whether PVAT modulation of vascular contractility is similar to that of the endothelium in health and disease.