Children designing privacy warnings: Informing a set of design guidelines

John Dempsey*, Gavin Sim, Brendan Cassidy, VINH-THONG TA

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
99 Downloads (Pure)


Children are increasingly interacting with digital technology and there are concerns relating to their online safety. Warning signs and messages have been integrated within technology in attempt to address safety concerns, however they often use metaphors and icons that may not always be comprehended by children. This paper reports on a study with 141 UK-based school children, aged between 7 and 13 years old who were asked to design warning messages related to the disclosure of private information online. Children were asked to draw warning messages for other children utilising personas and privacy risk scenarios, which were then analysed using content analysis to identify common characteristics. This paper contributes to the protection of children’s online privacy by identifying a set of guidelines that can be used when designing warning messages aimed at children disclosing data within an online setting.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100446
Pages (from-to)1
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Child-Computer Interaction
Issue numberMarch 2022
Early online date16 Dec 2021
Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2021


  • Children's privacy
  • Privacy warnings
  • Child computer interaction
  • Content analysis
  • Design Activity
  • Personas


Dive into the research topics of 'Children designing privacy warnings: Informing a set of design guidelines'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this