Although the concept of automaticity is closely associated with extensive rote training, previous studies have shown that task-defined stimulus–response (S–R) mappings can be implemented in parallel and involuntarily, without much training, as if they are automatically processed. An irrelevant task context may trigger a task-defined rule because the rule is actively maintained in working memory, resulting in erroneous implementation of that rule. However, the present study demonstrated that active maintenance of task rules is not necessary for their automatic implementation. Instead, the results are consistent with the memory view of automaticity, according to which task-defined S–R rules are implemented via automatic retrieval of S–R episodes.
Yamaguchi, M., & Proctor, R. W. (2011). Automaticity without extensive training: The role of memory retrieval in implementation of task-defined rules. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18(2), 347-354. https://doi.org/doi:10.3758/s13423-011-0050-8