Recreational and professional athletes frequently suffer muscle soreness and damage after exercise. Although there are probably many factors involved in the aetiology of muscle damage, one possibility is that damage is caused by an exercise-induced elevation in free-radical production. A number of chemical compounds possess antioxidant properties, including vitamins C and E. Consequently, in theory, supplementation with antioxidant vitamins before, during, or after exercise may reduce muscle damage and subsequent soreness. This brief review examines the studies available in the literature that have addressed this question in humans. Although a number of investigations have shown beneficial effects from supplementation with vitamins C and E, definitive and conclusive evidence remains lacking. As a result, there is a need for more extensive research into this area before meaningful conclusions can be drawn.