An X-STRs analysis of the Iraqi Sorani Kurds

Balnd M. Albarzinji, Shams Hadi, Bahez Ismael, Ahmed Barqee, Abdullah Hadi, Hayder Lazim*, Naji Arafat Mahat (Editor)

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


A database for the Iraqi Sorani Kurds, specifically focused on the 12 X-short tandem repeat (STR) loci, has been developed to fascilitate forensic and population genetics investigations. The present study involved genotyping 117 unrelated individuals from the Sorani Kurds ethnic group using the Investigator Argus X-12 QS kit. The analysis revealed that the DXS10135 locus exhibited the highest degree of polymorphism, as indicated by a polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.94565 and a gene diversity (GD) value of 0.95623. Conversely, the DXS8378 locus displayed the lowest level of polymorphism, with a PIC value of 0.61026 and a GD value of 0.68170. Notably, two individuals were found to possess a rare allele (allele = 6) at the DXS8378 locus, which was not included in the allelic ladder of the kit. Furthermore, a significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) (p < 0.05/117) was observed between the DXS10103 and DXS10101 loci on linkage group 3 (LG3). The ancestral composition of the five primary geographic regions, namely Africa, Middle East, East Asia, Europe, and South America, was determined through the utilization of the FST/FSTmax ratio. The findings of this analysis revealed that the Middle Eastern populations exhibited the lowest FST/FSTmax ratio, measuring at 0.23243, indicating a relatively lower ancestral diversity. Conversely, the European populations showcased the highest FST/FSTmax ratio, measuring at 0.27122, indicative of a greater ancestral diversity within this region. Additionally, the allelic richness indicators, namely distinctive and private alleles, indicated that Africa and the Middle East displayed the highest levels, while Far East Asia exhibited the lowest. This analysis supports the hypothesis of repeated founder effects during outward migrations, as evidenced by both the ancestry variability and the allelic richness. Consequently, the findings of this study have important implications for forensic genetics and population genetics research, particularly in relation to the consideration of genetic predispositions within specific ethnic groups.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0294973
Pages (from-to)1-18
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number11
Early online date27 Nov 2023
Publication statusPublished - 27 Nov 2023


  • Chromosomes, Human, X
  • Genetics, Population
  • Microsatellite Repeats/genetics
  • DNA Fingerprinting
  • Humans
  • Gene Frequency
  • Iraq
  • Polymorphism, Genetic


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