An Exploration of the Factors that Influence Ultra-Endurance Athletes’ Food Choices During Competition

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

Abstract

The reasons for suboptimal nutritional intake within ultra-endurance competitions are not fully understood. Therefore, the current programme of research discusses the findings from a series of studies that explored the factors that influence the competitive food choices of ultra-endurance athletes. Study 1 indicated that nutrition knowledge was not a strong predictor of food choice in these athletes. Study 2 used a mixed methods approach to explore the wider influences of food selection during ultra-endurance competition. In study 2, 101 ultra-endurance athletes completed a bespoke food choice questionnaire (U-FCQ) using a 7-point Likert style rating scale (1 = extremely unimportant to 7 = extremely important). A further 14 ultra-runners took part in semi-structured interviews. High levels of importance were attached to the avoidance of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) during the U-FCQ (6.6 ± 0.8) and the interviews (‘bloating’ ‘nausea’). Similarly, the need for energy (6.5 ± 0.8) and to overcome logistical challenges (6.1-6.3) was evident in both data sets. In the interviews, participants referred to specific nutrients (‘carbohydrate’ ‘sodium’) and food properties (‘portability’ ‘chewy’) that were either favourable or detrimental to nutritional intake. As an example, chewy foods were difficult to ingest and compromised intake. Many athletes rated being ‘nutritious’ (6.3 ± 0.7) as highly important to their food choices, but few runners commented on this during the interviews. Strong influences absent from the U-FCQ included the avoidance of other physiological symptoms (‘cramps’ ‘hunger’) and the athlete’s personal values. This included sensory preferences for specific tastes and the ‘familiarity’ of individual items. Conflict between studies likely reflects situation specific differences in food choice that are common in the literature, along with the scope of the data collection tools. The interviews enabled the researchers to explore the complexity of the food choice process, which was not possible using the U-FCQ. Particularly, how athletes balanced conflicting demands for fuel and cues to stop eating, especially in the latter stages of the race. This suggests that athletes would benefit from a race nutrition plan that is flexible and allows them to manage competing, dynamic nutritional drivers.
Original languageEnglish
PagesSuppl1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2019
EventInternational Sport and Exercise Nutrition Conference - Newcastle University , Newcastle, United Kingdom
Duration: 18 Dec 201820 Dec 2018
https://www.isenc.org/

Conference

ConferenceInternational Sport and Exercise Nutrition Conference
CountryUnited Kingdom
CityNewcastle
Period18/12/1820/12/18
Internet address

Fingerprint

Athletes
Food
Interviews
Muscle Cramp
Food Preferences
Hunger
Nausea
Cues
Eating
Sodium
Carbohydrates
Research Personnel
Research

Cite this

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title = "An Exploration of the Factors that Influence Ultra-Endurance Athletes’ Food Choices During Competition",
abstract = "The reasons for suboptimal nutritional intake within ultra-endurance competitions are not fully understood. Therefore, the current programme of research discusses the findings from a series of studies that explored the factors that influence the competitive food choices of ultra-endurance athletes. Study 1 indicated that nutrition knowledge was not a strong predictor of food choice in these athletes. Study 2 used a mixed methods approach to explore the wider influences of food selection during ultra-endurance competition. In study 2, 101 ultra-endurance athletes completed a bespoke food choice questionnaire (U-FCQ) using a 7-point Likert style rating scale (1 = extremely unimportant to 7 = extremely important). A further 14 ultra-runners took part in semi-structured interviews. High levels of importance were attached to the avoidance of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) during the U-FCQ (6.6 ± 0.8) and the interviews (‘bloating’ ‘nausea’). Similarly, the need for energy (6.5 ± 0.8) and to overcome logistical challenges (6.1-6.3) was evident in both data sets. In the interviews, participants referred to specific nutrients (‘carbohydrate’ ‘sodium’) and food properties (‘portability’ ‘chewy’) that were either favourable or detrimental to nutritional intake. As an example, chewy foods were difficult to ingest and compromised intake. Many athletes rated being ‘nutritious’ (6.3 ± 0.7) as highly important to their food choices, but few runners commented on this during the interviews. Strong influences absent from the U-FCQ included the avoidance of other physiological symptoms (‘cramps’ ‘hunger’) and the athlete’s personal values. This included sensory preferences for specific tastes and the ‘familiarity’ of individual items. Conflict between studies likely reflects situation specific differences in food choice that are common in the literature, along with the scope of the data collection tools. The interviews enabled the researchers to explore the complexity of the food choice process, which was not possible using the U-FCQ. Particularly, how athletes balanced conflicting demands for fuel and cues to stop eating, especially in the latter stages of the race. This suggests that athletes would benefit from a race nutrition plan that is flexible and allows them to manage competing, dynamic nutritional drivers.",
author = "CLAIRE BLENNERHASSETT and Andy Sparks and LARS MCNAUGHTON and LORCAN CRONIN and LEE NELSON and GENEVIEVE STONE",
note = "Abstracts in International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Volume 29 supplement 1; International Sport and Exercise Nutrition Conference ; Conference date: 18-12-2018 Through 20-12-2018",
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An Exploration of the Factors that Influence Ultra-Endurance Athletes’ Food Choices During Competition. / BLENNERHASSETT, CLAIRE; Sparks, Andy; MCNAUGHTON, LARS; CRONIN, LORCAN; NELSON, LEE; STONE, GENEVIEVE.

2019. Suppl1 Poster session presented at International Sport and Exercise Nutrition Conference, Newcastle, United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conferencePoster

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AU - BLENNERHASSETT, CLAIRE

AU - Sparks, Andy

AU - MCNAUGHTON, LARS

AU - CRONIN, LORCAN

AU - NELSON, LEE

AU - STONE, GENEVIEVE

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