An external focus of attention, enhanced expectancies and autonomy support are key independent and interactive characteristics which enhance motor learning. OPTIMAL characteristics have proven effective to adult’s motor learning yet, their effect on children’s motor learning is under-explored. Thirty-seven studies were systematically reviewed to outline the impact of OPTIMAL variables on children’s motor learning, specifically fundamental movement skills (FMS). Twenty-one studies examined an external focus of attention, results indicate a lack of research on enhanced expectancies (n = 9) and autonomy support (n = 7). Results show emerging evidence that motivational and attentional variables contribute to children’s effective motor learning, however the motivational underpinnings require further research (e.g. self-efficacy and perceived competence). Moreover, an external focus of attention was generally more effective for motor performance than an internal focus however the benefits on learning were not evidenced. Despite initial support that OPTMAL characteristics improve children’s FMS, a paucity of research exists regarding the impact of OPTIMAL variables across the full FMS range (i.e. a skewness towards object manipulation skills). Additionally, there is a need for future combinatory research addressing OPTIMAL variables in children (e.g. enhanced expectancies with autonomy support). These results have implications for movement specialists working with children.
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 1 May 2019|
|Event||8th Annual Meeting of Expertise and Skill Acquisition Network (ESAN). - St Mary’s University, Twickenham, London, United Kingdom|
Duration: 1 May 2019 → 2 May 2019
|Conference||8th Annual Meeting of Expertise and Skill Acquisition Network (ESAN).|
|Period||1/05/19 → 2/05/19|
- OPTIMAL theory