Traditional deep learning methods are suboptimal in classifying ambiguity features, which often arise in noisy and hard to predict categories, especially, to distinguish semantic scoring. Semantic scoring, depending on semantic logic to implement evaluation, inevitably contains fuzzy description and misses some concepts, for example, the ambiguous relationship between normal and probably normal always presents unclear boundaries (normal - more likely normal - probably normal). Thus, human error is common when annotating images. Differing from existing methods that focus on modifying kernel structure of neural networks, this article proposes a dominant fuzzy fully connected layer (FFCL) for breast imaging reporting and data system (BI-RADS) scoring and validates the universality of this proposed structure. This proposed model aims to develop complementary properties of scoring for semantic paradigms, while constructing fuzzy rules based on analyzing human thought patterns, and to particularly reduce the influence of semantic conglutination. Specifically, this semantic-sensitive defuzzifier layer projects features occupied by relative categories into semantic space, and a fuzzy decoder modifies probabilities of the last output layer referring to the global trend. Moreover, the ambiguous semantic space between two relative categories shrinks during the learning phases, as the positive and negative growth trends of one category appearing among its relatives were considered. We first used the Euclidean distance to zoom in the distance between the real scores and the predicted scores, and then employed two sample t test method to evidence the advantage of the FFCL architecture. Extensive experimental results performed on the curated breast imaging subset of digital database of screening mammography dataset show that our FFCL structure can achieve superior performances for both triple and multiclass classification in BI-RADS scoring, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods.
- Fuzzy deep neural networks
- transfer learning
- fuzzy fully connected layer
- medical image scoring
- fuzzy fully connected layer (FFCL)