A Cross-Sectional Survey of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Use in Pediatric Cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany

Aparna U. Hoskote*, Lyvonne N. Tume, Uwe Trieschmann, Christoph Menzel, Paola Cogo, Katherine L. Brown, Michael W. Broadhead

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (journal)peer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives: Despite the increasing use of near-infrared spectroscopy across pediatric cardiac ICUs, there is significant variability and equipoise with no universally accepted management algorithms. We aimed to explore the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Italy, and Germany. Design: A cross-sectional multicenter, multinational electronic survey of one consultant in each pediatric cardiac ICU. Setting: Pediatric cardiac ICUs in the United Kingdom and Ireland (n = 13), Italy (n = 12), and Germany (n = 33). Interventions: Questionnaire targeted to establish use, targets, protocols/thresholds for intervention, and perceived usefulness of near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring. Results: Overall, 42 of 58 pediatric cardiac ICUs (72%) responded: United Kingdom and Ireland, 11 of 13 (84.6%); Italy, 12 of 12 (100%); and Germany, 19 of 33 (57%, included all major centers). Near-infrared spectroscopy usage varied with 35% (15/42) reporting that near-infrared spectroscopy was not used at all (7/42) or occasionally (8/42); near-infrared spectroscopy use was much less common in the United Kingdom (46%) when compared with 78% in Germany and all (100%) in Italy. Only four units had a near-infrared spectroscopy protocol, and 18 specifically used near-infrared spectroscopy in high-risk patients; 37 respondents believed that near-infrared spectroscopy added value to standard monitoring and 23 believed that it gave an earlier indication of deterioration, but only 19 would respond based on near-infrared spectroscopy data alone. Targets for absolute values and critical thresholds for intervention varied widely between units. The reasons cited for not or occasionally using near-infrared spectroscopy were expense (n = 6), limited evidence and uncertainty on how it guides management (n = 4), difficulty in interpretation, and unreliability of data (n = 3). Amongst the regular or occasional near-infrared spectroscopy users (n = 35), 28 (66%) agreed that a multicenter study is warranted to ascertain its use. Conclusions: Although most responding units used near-infrared spectroscopy for high-risk patients, the majority (31/35 [88%]) did not have any protocols or guidelines for intervention. Target thresholds and intervention algorithms are needed to support the use of near-infrared spectroscopy in pediatric cardiac ICUs; an international multicenter study is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)36-44
Number of pages9
JournalPediatric Critical Care Medicine
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016

Keywords

  • brain monitoring
  • cerebral oximeter
  • cerebral saturation
  • pediatric cardiac surgery
  • regional oxygen saturation
  • tissue oxygenation index

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